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Neural stem cells are multipotent cells with the ability to differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Lineage specification is strongly sensitive to the mechanical properties of the cellular environment. However, molecular pathways transducing matrix mechanical cues to intracellular signaling pathways linked to lineage specification(More)
Submodular functions arewell-studied in combinatorial optimization, game theory and economics. The natural diminishing returns property makes them suitable for many applications. We study an extension of monotone submodular functions, which we call weakly submodular functions. Our extension is somewhat unusual in that it includes some (mildly) supermodular(More)
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons of binocular animals cross the midline at the optic chiasm (OC) to grow toward their synaptic targets in the contralateral brain. Ventral anterior homeobox 1 (Vax1) plays an essential role in the development of the OC by regulating RGC axon growth in a non-cell autonomous manner. In this study, we identify an unexpected(More)
Cephalopods possess remarkable camouflage capabilities, which are enabled by their complex skin structure and sophisticated nervous system. Such unique characteristics have in turn inspired the design of novel functional materials and devices. Within this context, recent studies have focused on investigating the self-assembly, optical, and electrical(More)
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