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Canavan disease is a hereditary leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the aspartoacylase gene (ASPA), leading to loss of enzyme activity and increased concentrations of the substrate N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in the brain. Accumulation of NAA results in spongiform degeneration of white matter and severe impairment of psychomotor development. The goal of this(More)
INTRODUCTION Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder that results in functional deficits. However, these functional declines are often not able to be quantified in clinical trials for DMD until after age 7. In this study, we hypothesized that (1)H2O T2 derived using (1)H-MRS and MRI-T2 will be sensitive to muscle involvement at a(More)
A localized proton 2D double-quantum (DQ) spin-echo spectroscopy technique was implemented on 1.5 T clinical MRI scanners for the detection of gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) in the brain. The 2D approach facilitates separation of peaks overlapping with GABA in 1D DQ-filtered (DQF) spectra. This technique was applied to four normal adult volunteers and four(More)
Our group has previously reported the first clinical application of lithium in a child affected by Canavan disease. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of lithium on N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) as well as other end points in a larger cohort. Six patients with clinical, laboratory and genetic confirmation of Canavan disease were recruited and(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of corticosteroids on the lower extremity muscles in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) using MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). METHODS Transverse relaxation time (T2) and fat fraction were measured by MRI/MRS in lower extremity muscles of 15 boys with DMD (age 5.0-6.9 years) taking corticosteroids(More)
The NIH MRI Study of normal brain development sought to characterize typical brain development in a population of infants, toddlers, children and adolescents/young adults, covering the socio-economic and ethnic diversity of the population of the United States. The study began in 1999 with data collection commencing in 2001 and concluding in 2007. The study(More)
PURPOSE The relationship between fat fractions (FFs) determined based on multiple TE, unipolar gradient echo images and (1) H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was evaluated using different models for fat-water decomposition, signal-to-noise ratios, and excitation flip angles. METHODS A combination of single-voxel proton spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) and(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to describe Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) disease progression in the lower extremity muscles over 12 months using quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) biomarkers, collected across three sites in a large cohort. METHODS A total of 109 ambulatory boys with DMD (8.7 ± 2.0 years; range, 5.0-12.9) completed baseline and(More)
MLD is characterized by accumulation of sulfatides in the brain. Vitamin K regulates two enzymes in sphingolipid biosynthesis and warfarin is known to lower brain sulfatides in rats and mice. We hypothesized that warfarin may mitigate the MLD phenotype by reducing the formation of sulfatides. This compassionate study recruited four advanced patients with(More)
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is characterized by the accumulation of sulfatide sphingolipids in the brain and peripheral nerves. We report metabolite alterations recorded using multi-voxel proton spectroscopy of the brain in four children with MLD. The data revealed elevated myoinositol/creatine and lactate/creatine ratios as well as decreased(More)