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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria is one of the most potent innate immune-activating stimuli known. Here we review the current understanding of LPS effects on human monocyte and macrophage function. We provide an overview of LPS signal transduction with attention given to receptor cooperativity and species differences in LPS responses, as(More)
PURPOSE Cancers have developed a number of strategies to escape immune responses including the differential expression of costimulatory molecules of the B7 family. B7-H3 and B7-H4 have recently been described in different tumor entities but the relevance for melanoma has not yet been studied so far. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Using immunohistochemistry, B7-H3(More)
Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome enables monocytes and macrophages to release high levels of interleukin-1β during inflammatory responses. Concentrations of extracellular calcium can increase at sites of infection, inflammation or cell activation. Here we show that increased extracellular calcium activates the NLRP3 inflammasome via stimulation of G(More)
OBJECTIVE Expansion of autoreactive CD4+CD28(null) T cells is associated with extraarticular disease manifestations, including rheumatoid vasculitis, and it has recently been demonstrated that expansion of these T cells is associated with anticytomegalovirus (anti-CMV) seropositivity. This study was undertaken to investigate a possible link between latent(More)
The modulation and suppression of anti-tumor immune responses is a characteristic feature of tumor cells to escape immune surveillance. Members of the B7 family are involved in this process, since the level of activation of the anti-tumor immune response depends on the balance between co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory signals. Some molecules are often(More)
The importance of B7-H molecules for the T cell/tumor communication and its impact on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression and prognosis has been recently described. Cytokine treatment of RCC has earlier been shown to be beneficial in preclinical settings, but its clinical implementation has not proven to be as effective. This might be partially explained(More)
Peripheral CD4CD8 double positive (DP) T cells have been reported to play a role in several autoimmune diseases, virus infections and cancer. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), both CD4 and CD8 single positive (SP) T cells are known to be involved in the pathogenesis, but the role of peripheral CD4CD8 DP T cells has not been investigated in detail. Anti cyclic(More)
OBJECTIVE Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 (LIR-1) is up-regulated by cytomegalovirus (CMV), which in turn, has been associated with premature aging and more severe joint disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and functional significance of LIR-1 in CMV-positive RA patients. (More)
Alum adjuvanticity is still an unknown mechanism despite the frequent use as vaccine adjuvant in humans. Here we show that Alum-induced inflammasome activation in vitro and in vivo is mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor GPRC6A. The Alum-induced humoral response in vivo was independent of the inflammasome because Nlrp3-/- and ASC-/- mice responded(More)
The non-classical human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E) expression is frequently overexpressed in tumor diseases, transplants and virus-infected cells and represents an immunomodulatory molecule by binding to the receptors CD94/NKG2A, -B and -C on NK and T cells. Due to its immune suppressive features HLA-E expression might represent an important mechanism of(More)