Dagmar Kulms

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Induction of apoptosis in keratinocytes by UV light is a critical event in photocarcinogenesis. Although p53 is of importance in this process, evidence exists that other pathways play a role as well. Therefore, we studied whether the apoptosis-related surface molecule CD95 (Fas/APO-1) is involved. The human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT expresses CD95 and(More)
Ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) causes a variety of biological effects which include the induction of apoptosis. UVB-induced apoptosis provides a well controlled scavenging mechanism protecting cells from malignant transformation. To induce programmed cell death, UVB uses a variety of cellular signaling pathways. In this context induction of nuclear DNA(More)
Although nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) usually exerts anti-apoptotic activity, upon activation by interleukin-1 (IL-1) it enhances ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB)-induced apoptosis. This paradoxical effect is associated with NF-kappaB-dependent pronounced secretion of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) which activates TNF-R1 in an autocrine fashion to(More)
Induction of apoptosis of keratinocytes by ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a protective phenomenon relevant in limiting the survival of cells with irreparable DNA damage. Changes in UV-induced apoptosis may therefore have significant impact on photocarcinogenesis. We have found that the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-12 suppresses UV-mediated apoptosis of(More)
Sunburn cells, single standing cells with typical morphologic features occurring in UV-exposed skin, have been recognized as keratinocytes undergoing apoptosis following UV irradiation. Induction of apoptosis following UV exposure appears to be a protective mechanism, getting rid off severely damaged cells that bear the risk of malignant transformation.(More)
Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB) by inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis (TNF) factor and interleukin-1 (IL-1) is generally associated with the induction of antiapoptotic pathways. Therefore, NFkappaB inhibits both intrinsically and extrinsically induced apoptosis and thus is regarded to act universally in an(More)
Nuclear DNA damage and death receptor (CD95) activation by ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) play a major role in UVB-induced apoptosis. Removal of DNA damage combined with inhibition of death receptor activation resulted in pronounced but not complete suppression of apoptosis, indicating that a third independent pathway is involved. Since reactive oxygen(More)
Successful treatment of melanoma is still challenging, because metastasis remain chemoresistant and radioresistant. Accordingly, combinational treatments involving death ligands are mandatory. In a recent study from our lab, the majority out of 18 melanoma cell lines remained resistant against treatment with the death ligand TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor(More)
In melanoma, the PI3K-AKT-mTOR (AKT) and RAF-MEK-ERK (MAPK) signaling pathways are constitutively activated and appear to play a role in chemoresistance. Herein, we investigated the effects of pharmacological AKT and MAPK pathway inhibitors on chemosensitivity of melanoma cells to cisplatin and temozolomide. Chemosensitivity was tested by examining effects(More)
BACKGROUND In melanoma, several signalling pathways are constitutively activated. Among them, the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK (MAPK) and PI3K/AKT (AKT) signalling pathways are activated through multiple mechanisms and appear to play a major role in melanoma development and progression. OBJECTIVES In this study, we examined whether targeting the MAPK and/or AKT(More)