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Malfunctions of processes involved in cellular lipid storage and mobilization induce the pathogenesis of prevalent human diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Lipid droplets are the main lipid storage depots for neutral lipids in eukaryotic cells, and as such fulfil an essential function to balance cellular lipid metabolism and(More)
In a synaptic active zone, vesicles aggregate around a densely staining structure called the presynaptic density. We focus on its three-dimensional architecture and a major molecular component in the locust. We used electron tomography to study the presynaptic density in synapses made in the brain by identified second-order neuron of the ocelli. Here,(More)
Synthesis, storage, and turnover of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in adipocytes are critical cellular processes to maintain lipid and energy homeostasis in mammals. TAGs are stored in metabolically highly dynamic lipid droplets (LDs), which are believed to undergo fragmentation and fusion under lipolytic and lipogenic conditions, respectively. Time lapse(More)
Macrophage phagocytosis is an essential biological process in host defense and requires large amounts of energy. To date, glucose is believed to represent the prime substrate for ATP production in macrophages. To investigate the relative contribution of free fatty acids (FFAs) in this process, we determined the phagocytosis rates in normal mouse macrophages(More)
Programmed cell death of lipid-laden macrophages is a prominent feature of atherosclerotic lesions and mostly ascribed to accumulation of excess intracellular cholesterol. The present in vitro study investigated whether intracellular triacylglycerol (TG) accumulation could activate a similar apoptotic response in macrophages. To address this question, we(More)
Plants cope with cadmium (Cd) stress by complexation with phytochelatins (Pc), metallothioneins and glutathione and sequestration within vacuoles. Especially glutathione was found to play a major role in Cd detoxification as Cd shows a high binding affinity towards thiols and as glutathione is a precursor for Pc synthesis. In the present study, we have used(More)
Triacylglycerol (TG) accumulation caused by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) deficiency or very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) loading of wild-type (Wt) macrophages results in mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. This phenotype is correlated to depletion of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an event known to induce the unfolded protein response(More)
Lipolysis is defined as the catabolism of triacylglycerols (TGs) stored in cellular lipid droplets. Recent discoveries of essential lipolytic enzymes and characterization of numerous regulatory proteins and mechanisms have fundamentally changed our perception of lipolysis and its impact on cellular metabolism. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the(More)
Peptidoglycans (PGNs) are immunogenic bacterial surface patterns that trigger immune activation in metazoans and plants. It is generally unknown how complex bacterial structures such as PGNs are perceived by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and whether host hydrolytic activities facilitate decomposition of bacterial matrices and generation of(More)
The chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) recently attracted increasing attention in the field of placenta research due to its dual nature, acting both as membrane-bound and soluble forms. While the membrane-bound form mediates flow-resistant adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial and epithelial cells via its corresponding receptor CX3CR1, the soluble form arises(More)