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Recognition of microbial patterns by host pattern recognition receptors is a key step in immune activation in multicellular eukaryotes. Peptidoglycans (PGNs) are major components of bacterial cell walls that possess immunity-stimulating activities in metazoans and plants. Here we show that PGN sensing and immunity to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis(More)
Storage triacylglycerols (TAG) and membrane phospholipids share common precursors, i.e. phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol, in the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition to providing a biophysically rather inert storage pool for fatty acids, TAG synthesis plays an important role to buffer excess fatty acids (FA). The inability to incorporate exogenous oleic(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate genes involved in energy metabolism and inflammation. For biological activity, PPARs require cognate lipid ligands, heterodimerization with retinoic X receptors, and coactivation by PPAR-γ coactivator-1α or PPAR-γ coactivator-1β (PGC-1α or PGC-1β, encoded by(More)
Malfunctions of processes involved in cellular lipid storage and mobilization induce the pathogenesis of prevalent human diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Lipid droplets are the main lipid storage depots for neutral lipids in eukaryotic cells, and as such fulfil an essential function to balance cellular lipid metabolism and(More)
Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone regulating various cellular processes in plants, including stomatal opening and seed germination. Although protein phosphorylation via mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) has been suggested to be important in ABA signaling, the corresponding phosphatases are largely unknown. Here, we show that a member(More)
Effective plant defense strategies rely in part on the perception of non-self determinants, so-called microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), by transmembrane pattern recognition receptors leading to MAMP-triggered immunity. Plant resistance against necrotrophic pathogens with a broad host range is complex and yet not well understood. Particularly,(More)
SCOPE Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated antioxidative and anti-inflammatory chalcone from hops, exhibits positive effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. Based on its favorable biological properties, we investigated whether XN attenuates atherosclerosis in western-type diet-fed apolipoprotein-E-deficient (ApoE⁻/⁻) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS XN(More)
Programmed cell death of lipid-laden macrophages is a prominent feature of atherosclerotic lesions and mostly ascribed to accumulation of excess intracellular cholesterol. The present in vitro study investigated whether intracellular triacylglycerol (TG) accumulation could activate a similar apoptotic response in macrophages. To address this question, we(More)
Macrophage phagocytosis is an essential biological process in host defense and requires large amounts of energy. To date, glucose is believed to represent the prime substrate for ATP production in macrophages. To investigate the relative contribution of free fatty acids (FFAs) in this process, we determined the phagocytosis rates in normal mouse macrophages(More)
Yeast Fld1 and Ldb16 resemble mammalian seipin, implicated in neutral lipid storage. Both proteins form a complex at the endoplasmic reticulum-lipid droplet (LD) interface. Malfunction of this complex either leads to LD clustering or to the generation of supersized LD (SLD) in close vicinity to the nuclear envelope, in response to altered phospholipid (PL)(More)