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Huntington's disease is caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the gene encoding huntingtin (HTT), resulting in loss of striatal and cortical neurons. Given that the gene product is widely expressed, it remains unclear why neurons are selectively targeted. Here we show the relationship between synaptic and extrasynaptic activity, inclusion formation of mutant(More)
The accumulation of beta-sheet-rich amyloid fibrils or aggregates is a complex, multistep process that is associated with cellular toxicity in a number of human protein misfolding disorders, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. It involves the formation of various transient and intransient, on- and off-pathway aggregate species, whose structure,(More)
Protein misfolding and formation of beta-sheet-rich amyloid fibrils or aggregates is related to cellular toxicity and decay in various human disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Recently, we demonstrated that the polyphenol (-)-epi-gallocatechine gallate (EGCG) inhibits alpha-synuclein and amyloid-beta fibrillogenesis. It associates with(More)
Levels of full-length huntingtin (FL htt) influence organ and body weight, independent of polyglutamine length. The growth hormone-insulin like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis is well established as a regulator of organ growth and body weight. In this study, we investigate the involvement of the IGF-1 pathway in mediating the effect of htt on body weight.(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which only symptomatic treatments of limited effectiveness are available. Preventing early misfolding steps and thereby aggregation of the polyglutamine (polyQ)-containing protein huntingtin (htt) in neurons of patients may represent an attractive therapeutic strategy to postpone the(More)
Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an elongated polyglutamine tract in huntingtin (htt). htt normally undergoes different posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including phosphorylation, SUMOylation, ubiquitination, acetylation, proteolytic cleavage, and palmitoylation. In the presence of the HD mutation, some PTMs are(More)
Caspases are cysteine-aspartic proteases that post-translationally modify their substrates through cleavage at specific sites, which causes either substrate inactivation or a gain of function through the generation of active fragments. Currently, each caspase is categorized as either an initiator of apoptosis or an end-stage executioner. Caspase-6 was(More)
Neurodegenerative diseases, exemplified by Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, are characterized by progressive neuropsychiatric dysfunction and loss of specific neuronal subtypes. Although there are differences in the exact sites of pathology, and the clinical profiles of these two conditions only partially overlap, considerable similarities in(More)
Autophagy is an important biological process that is essential for the removal of damaged organelles and toxic or aggregated proteins by delivering them to the lysosome for degradation. Consequently, autophagy has become a primary target for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases that involve aggregating proteins. In Huntington disease (HD), an(More)
Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a cellular pathway involved in normal cell turnover, developmental tissue remodeling, embryonic development, cellular homeostasis maintenance and chemical-induced cell death. Caspases are a family of intracellular proteases that play a key role in apoptosis. Aberrant activation of caspases has been implicated in human(More)