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In several brain areas, extracellular adenosine (AD) levels are higher during waking than sleep and during prolonged wakefulness AD levels in the basal forebrain increase progressively. Similarly, c-Fos levels in several brain areas are higher during waking than sleep and remain elevated during prolonged wakefulness. In the present study, we investigated(More)
Sleep homeostasis is the process by which recovery sleep is generated by prolonged wakefulness. The molecular mechanisms underlying this important phenomenon are poorly understood. We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) generation increases in the basal forebrain (BF) during sleep deprivation (SD). Moreover, both NO synthase (NOS) inhibition and a(More)
  • D Stenberg
  • 2007
Sleep is regulated by homeostatic and circadian factors, and the regulation of sleep of mammals shares many molecular properties with the rest state of submammalian species. Several brain structures take part in waking: the basal forebrain, posterior and lateral hypothalamus, and nuclei in the tegmentum and pons. Active sleep mechanisms are located to the(More)
Noradrenergic locus ceruleus neurons are most active during waking and least active during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. We expected REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) to increase norepinephrine utilization and activate the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene critical for norepinephrine production. Male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep with the platform(More)
The daily rhythms of salivary melatonin, salivary cortisol, and axillary body temperature were measured in nine healthy volunteers in midsummer, around the autumn equinox, and in midwinter, at a latitude of 60 degrees N. The aim was to find out whether these rhythms were dependent on variations of the natural daylength. The samples were collected every 2 hr(More)
Sleep deprivation (SD) increases extracellular adenosine levels in the basal forebrain, and pharmacological manipulations that increase extracellular adenosine in the same area promote sleep. As pharmacological evidence indicates that the effect is mediated through adenosine A1 receptors (A1R), we expected A1R knockout (KO) mice to have reduced rebound(More)
Sleep saves energy, but can brain energy depletion induce sleep? We used 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a molecule which prevents the synthesis of ATP, to induce local energy depletion in the basal forebrain of rats. Three-hour DNP infusions induced elevations in extracellular concentrations of lactate, pyruvate and adenosine, as well as increases in non-REM(More)
Both aging and sleep deprivation disturb the functions of the frontal lobes. Deficits in brain energy metabolism have been reported in these conditions. Neurons use not only glucose but also lactate as their energy substrate. The physiological response to elevated neuronal activity is a transient increase in lactate concentrations in the stimulated area. We(More)
Sleep homeostasis is the process by which recovery sleep is generated by prolonged wakefulness. The molecular mechanisms underlying this important phenomenon are poorly understood. Here, we assessed the role of the intercellular gaseous signaling agent NO in sleep homeostasis. We measured the concentration of nitrite and nitrate, indicative of NO(More)
A prolonged period of waking accumulates sleep pressure, increasing both the duration and the intensity of the subsequent sleep period. Delta power, which is calculated from the slow range electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations (0.1-4 Hz), is regarded as the marker of sleep intensity. Recent findings indicate that not only the duration but also the(More)