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This is a study of people living in Aland, a group of islands in the Baltic Sea between Finland and Sweden. 500 blood donors and 3,248 health service clients who did not have Lyme borreliosis were examined for Borrelia burgdorferi IgG antibodies. The method used was an ELISA containing a selection of diagnostic antigens to a Borrelia burgdorferi PKo strain.(More)
Aiming to investigate the role of cytotoxic mechanisms in neuroborreliosis (NB), the cytokines IL-2, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-15, GM-CSF and the Th17-cytokine IL-17 were analyzed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from NB-patients. NB-patients showed increased levels in CSF compared to controls of all analyzed cytokines except IL-15 but not in plasma.(More)
Erythema migrans is the most common manifestation of stage I Lyme borreliosis. This study investigated the relation between the subspecies of Borrelia burgdorferi involved, the time of development and the appearance of the manifestation. The study comprised 33 cases of erythema migrans yielding B. burgdorferi sensu lato by culture of skin biopsy. The(More)
The risk of contracting human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) after a tick bite is mainly unknown. In this study we investigated the clinical and serological response in 30 humans bitten by ticks positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Group A), 30 humans bitten by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.)-positive ticks (Group B), and 30 humans bitten by(More)
Despite rather strict recommendations for antibiotic treatment of disseminated Lyme borreliosis (LB), evidence-based studies on the duration of antibiotic treatment are scarce. The aim of this multicenter study was to determine whether initial treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone (CRO) for 3 weeks should be extended with a period of adjunct oral(More)
Linkage disequilibrium analysis has been used as a tool for analyzing marker order and locating disease genes. Under appropriate circumstances, disequilibrium patterns reflect recombination events that have occurred throughout a population's history. As a result, disequilibrium mapping may be useful in genomic regions of < 1 cM where the number of(More)
OBJECTIVES The risk of developing Lyme borreliosis (LB) from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb)-infected ticks in Sweden is largely unknown. In the current study, we investigated the prevalence of Bb in ticks that had bitten humans and the risk of developing LB from Bb-infected ticks. METHODS Health questionnaires, blood samples, and ticks were(More)
The aim of this study was to develop a treatment for late Lyme borreliosis and to compare the clinical results with serological findings before and after treatment. It was done in the Aland Islands (population 25,000), a region endemic for Lyme borreliosis. The patients were the first consecutive 100 patients from the Aland Islands with late Lyme(More)
A strong initial inflammatory response is important in neuroborreliosis. Since complement is a main player in early inflammation, we monitored the concentration and activation of complement in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid from 298 patients, of whom 23 were diagnosed with neuroborreliosis. Using sandwich ELISAs, we found significantly elevated levels of(More)
Lyme borreliosis is endemic in the Aland Islands. Exposure of the inhabitants to bites of the tick Ixodes ricinus is heavy. The purpose of this study was to describe symptoms and signs of patients with late Lyme borreliosis in this area, and to correlate the findings with the epidemiological setting. The first 100 consecutive patients with late Lyme(More)