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The aim of this study was to investigate relations between cadmium, lead, and aluminum in municipality drinking water and the incidence of hip fractures in the Norwegian population. A trace metals survey in 566 waterworks was linked geographically to hip fractures from hospitals throughout the country (1994–2000). In all those supplied from these(More)
Norway has a high incidence of hip fractures, and the incidence varies by degree of urbanization. This variation may reflect a difference in underlying environmental factors, perhaps variations in the concentration of calcium and magnesium in municipal drinking water. A trace metal survey (1986-1991) in 556 waterworks (supplying 64% of the Norwegian(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the associations of acidity and concentration of selected minerals in household tap water with the risk of type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We designed a population-based case-control study with 64 cases of type 1 diabetes and 250 randomly selected control subjects. Acidity, color, and mineral content were measured in tap(More)
M efforts have been made to reduce sulfur emissions in Europe. Acid rain pollution in Norway has diminished substantially, thanks to the 1979 Geneva Convention on Longrange Transboundary Air Pollution, which was implemented starting in 1983. Parallel with the reduction in acid rain, atmospheric concentrations and deposition of mercury (Hg) have also been(More)
The mechanisms for particle-induced health effects are not well understood, but inflammation seems to be of importance. Previously, we have shown that stone quarry particles with various mineral and metal content differed widely in potency to induce inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha) in different types of lung cells. In this study we(More)
BACKGROUND The Norwegian population has among the highest hip fracture rates in the world. The incidence varies geographically, also within Norway. Calcium in drinking water has been found to be beneficially associated with bone health in some studies, but not in all. In most previous studies, other minerals in water have not been taken into account. Trace(More)
Recent reports associating aluminium with several skeletal and neurological disorders in humans suggest that exposure to aluminium may pose a health hazard. In connection with an epidemiological study on aluminium and Alzheimer's disease, information on the body burden of aluminium was needed. Aluminium is stored in the body mainly in bone and soft tissues(More)
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