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Eukaryotic chromosomes are organized inside the nucleus in such a way that only a subset of the genome is expressed in any given cell type, but the details of this organization are largely unknown. SATB1 ('special AT-rich sequence binding 1'), a protein found predominantly in thymocytes, regulates genes by folding chromatin into loop domains, tethering(More)
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by premutation expansions (55-200 CGG repeats) in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. The pathologic hallmark of FXTAS is the ubiquitin-positive intranuclear inclusion found in neurons and astrocytes in broad distribution throughout the brain.(More)
Mutations in MECP2, encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), cause the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). Although MECP2 mutations are rare in idiopathic autism, reduced MeCP2 levels are common in autism cortex. MeCP2 is critical for postnatal neuronal maturation and a modulator of activity-dependent genes such as Bdnf (brain-derived(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND Mutations in MECP2 encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) cause the X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome. Rett syndrome patients exhibit neurological symptoms that include irregular breathing, impaired mobility, stereotypic hand movements, and loss of speech. MeCP2 protein epigenetically modulates gene(More)
Rett syndrome (RTT), caused by mutations in MECP2 (encoding methyl CpG binding protein 2), and Angelman syndrome (AS), caused by maternal deficiency of chromosome 15q11-13, are autism-spectrum neurodevelopmental disorders. MeCP2 is a transcriptional repressor of methylated genes, but MECP2 mutation does not directly affect the imprinted expression of genes(More)
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a genetic disorder of obesity, intellectual disability and sleep abnormalities, is caused by loss of non-coding RNAs on paternal chromosome 15q11-q13. The imprinted minimal PWS locus encompasses a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcript processed into multiple SNORD116 small nucleolar RNAs and the spliced exons of the host gene,(More)
Copy number variations (CNVs) within human 15q11.2-13.3 show reduced penetrance and variable expressivity in a range of neurologic disorders. Therefore, characterizing 15q11.2-13.3 chromatin structure is important for understanding the regulation of this locus during normal neuronal development. Deletion of the Prader-Willi imprinting center (PWS-IC) within(More)
Mutations in MECP2 cause the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT OMIM 312750). Alternative inclusion of MECP2/Mecp2 exon 1 with exons 3 and 4 encodes MeCP2-e1 or MeCP2-e2 protein isoforms with unique amino termini. While most MECP2 mutations are located in exons 3 and 4 thus affecting both isoforms, MECP2 exon 1 mutations but not exon 2 mutations(More)
Epigenetic mechanisms convey information above and beyond the sequence of DNA, so it is predicted that they are critical in the complex regulation of brain development and explain the long-lived effects of environmental cues on pre- and early post-natal brain development. Neurons have a complex epigenetic landscape that changes dynamically with(More)
It is becoming increasingly clear that epigenetic modifications are critical factors in the regulation of gene expression. With regard to the nervous system, epigenetic alterations play a role in a diverse set of processes and have been implicated in a variety of disorders. Gaining a more complete understanding of the essential components and underlying(More)