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—RF modulated backscatter (RFMB), also known as modulated radar cross section or sigma modulation, is a RF transmission technique useful for short-range, low-data-rate applications, such as nonstop toll collection, electronic shelf tags, freight container identification and chassis identification in automobile manufacturing, that are constrained to have(More)
A new multi-antenna or multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) configuration is introduced for RF modulated backscatter in a multipath environment. RF modulated backscatter is used by semipassive RF tags to transmit without a power amplifier, and is therefore appropriate for applications with extreme power constraints such as sensor communications, electronic(More)
Absrract-Modulated backscatter is a RF transmission technique useful for short-range, low-data-rate applications constrained to have extremely low power requirements, such as electronic shelf tags, RF tags, and some sensor applications. The small-scale fading observed on the backscattered signal has deeper fades than a signal from a traditional one-way link(More)
The applicability of gallium-based liquid metal alloy has been limited by the oxidation problem. In this paper, we report a simple method to remove the oxide layer on the surface of such alloy to recover its nonwetting characteristics, using hydrochloric acid (HCl) vapor. Through the HCl vapor treatment, we successfully restored the nonwetting(More)
Micro bearing systems for Micro Electrome-chanical Systems (MEMS) have drawn attention for several decades as critical components for micro rotating machinery. Ideally, frictionless bearings are needed, and in practice, micro gas bearings approach the ideal. Typically, bearings function as a separate component, assembled onto sliding counterparts. However,(More)
Two symmetrical terminal electrodes made of indium tin oxide (ITO) were employed to study the current-voltage characteristics of a bulk-heterojunction consisting of water soluble polythiophene and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). However, the current-voltage curves were asymmetrical, attributed to the polarization induced by the initial bias voltage.(More)
Galinstan has the potential to replace mercury - one of the most popular liquid metals. However, the easy oxidation of Galinstan restricts wide applicability of the material. In this paper, we report an effective reduction method for the oxidized Galinstan using gas permeable PDMS (polydimethlysiloxane)-based microfluidic channel. The complete study is(More)
The fabrication and characterization of highly flexible textiles are reported. These textiles can harvest thermal energy from temperature gradients in the desirable through-thickness direction. The tiger yarns containing n- and p-type segments are woven to provide textiles containing n-p junctions. A high power output of up to 8.6 W m(-2) is obtained for a(More)
The photo-response of a freestanding constricted polymeric solid-state bridge of water soluble sodium poly[2-(3-thienyl)-ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate] (SPTEBS) was studied as a function of water vapor pressure. The dark current dramatically increases with water vapor pressure higher than 12 Torr. Surprisingly, under light illumination, the short-circuit current(More)