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In a multi-agent environment, where the outcomes of one's actions change dynamically because they are related to the behavior of other beings, it becomes difficult to make an optimal decision about how to act. Although game theory provides normative solutions for decision making in groups, how such decision-making strategies are altered by experience is(More)
The process of decision making in humans and other animals is adaptive and can be tuned through experience so as to optimize the outcomes of their choices in a dynamic environment. Previous studies have demonstrated that the anterior cingulate cortex plays an important role in updating the animal's behavioral strategies when the action outcome contingencies(More)
The striatum is thought to play a crucial role in value-based decision making. Although a large body of evidence suggests its involvement in action selection as well as action evaluation, underlying neural processes for these functions of the striatum are largely unknown. To obtain insights on this matter, we simultaneously recorded neuronal activity in the(More)
Decision making in a social group has two distinguishing features. First, humans and other animals routinely alter their behavior in response to changes in their physical and social environment. As a result, the outcomes of decisions that depend on the behavior of multiple decision makers are difficult to predict and require highly adaptive decision-making(More)
Animals living in a dynamic environment must adjust their decision-making strategies through experience. To gain insights into the neural basis of such adaptive decision-making processes, we trained monkeys to play a competitive game against a computer in an oculomotor free-choice task. The animal selected one of two visual targets in each trial and was(More)
Human behaviors can be more powerfully influenced by conditioned reinforcers, such as money, than by primary reinforcers. Moreover, people often change their behaviors to avoid monetary losses. However, the effect of removing conditioned reinforcers on choices has not been explored in animals, and the neural mechanisms mediating the behavioral effects of(More)
Knowledge about hypothetical outcomes from unchosen actions is beneficial only when such outcomes can be correctly attributed to specific actions. Here we show that during a simulated rock-paper-scissors game, rhesus monkeys can adjust their choice behaviors according to both actual and hypothetical outcomes from their chosen and unchosen actions,(More)
Response variability is often correlated across populations of neurons, and these noise correlations may play a role in information coding. In previous studies, this possibility has been examined from the encoding and decoding perspectives. Here we used d prime and related information measures to examine how studies of noise correlations from these two(More)
Activity of the neurons in the lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP) displays a mixture of sensory, motor, and memory signals. Moreover, they often encode signals reflecting the accumulation of sensory evidence that certain eye movements might lead to a desirable outcome. However, when the environment changes dynamically, animals are also required to combine(More)
The brain processes information about sensory stimuli and motor intentions using a massive ensemble of neurons arrayed in parallel. Individual neurons receive convergent inputs from thousands of other neurons, leading to the possibility that patterns of spikes across the input neurons might be crucial components of the neural code. Recently, advances in(More)