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Fear can be acquired vicariously through social observation of others suffering from aversive stimuli. We found that mice (observers) developed freezing behavior by observing other mice (demonstrators) receive repetitive foot shocks. Observers had higher fear responses when demonstrators were socially related to themselves, such as siblings or mating(More)
Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) can replace lost neurons and improve the functional deficits. Cell transplantation strategies have been tried in the epileptic disorder, but the effect of exogenous NSCs is unknown. In this study, we attempted to test the anti-epileptogenic effect of NSCs in adult rats with status epilepticus. Experimental status(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE MicroRNAs (miRNA) are single-stranded short RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by either degradation or translational repression of mRNA. Although miRNAs control a number of conditions and diseases, few neuroprotective miRNAs have been described. In this study, we investigated neuroprotective miRNAs induced early in ischemic(More)
OBJECTIVE Alzheimer disease (AD) brains are deficient in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which regulates synaptic plasticity and memory. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ∼22-nucleotide small noncoding RNAs that control a variety of physiological and disease processes. Here, we show that miR-206 regulates BDNF and memory function in AD mice. METHODS(More)
The plasma membrane Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) plays a role in regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration via the forward mode (Ca(2+) efflux) or the reverse mode (Ca(2+) influx). To define the physiological function of the exchanger in vivo, we generated mice deficient for NCX2, the major isoform in the brain. Mutant hippocampal neurons exhibited a(More)
Many patients with epilepsy are afflicted with psychiatric comorbidities including social dysfunction. However, although social deficits have been a major concern in epilepsy treatment, the relationship between social behavioral pathogenesis and the time course of epileptogenesis is not well defined. To address this, we investigated social behavioral(More)
Stimulated vagus nerve excretes acetylcholine into the peripheral immune organs such as the spleen, reducing innate inflammation. Here, we investigated whether activation of this "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" can be used to reduce cerebral inflammation in a model of hemorrhagic stroke. Experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was induced by(More)
Voltage-dependent N-type Ca(2+) channels play important roles in the regulation of diverse neuronal functions in the brain, but little is known about its role in social aggressive behaviors. Mice lacking the alpha1B subunit (Ca(v)2.2) of N-type Ca(2+) channels showed markedly enhanced aggressive behaviors to an intruder mouse in the resident-intruder test.(More)
PURPOSE Stem cell-based therapies are being considered for various neurologic diseases, such as epilepsy. Recent studies have suggested that some effects of transplanted stem cells are due to bystander effects that modulate the host environment, rather than direct effects of cell replacement. The extract from human adipose stem cells (ASCs) that secrete(More)
Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation replaces damaged brain cells and provides disease-modifying effects in many neurological disorders. However, there has been no efficient way to obtain autologous NSCs in patients. Given that ectopic factors can reprogram somatic cells to be pluripotent, we attempted to generate human NSC-like cells by reprograming(More)