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Reagents that inhibit the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway in cells have not been available. Peptide aldehydes that inhibit major peptidase activities of the 20S and 26S proteasomes are shown to reduce the degradation of protein and ubiquitinated protein substrates by 26S particles. Unlike inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis, these compounds inhibit(More)
Aging induces gradual yet massive cell death in higher organisms, including annual plants. Even so, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are barely known, despite the long-standing interest in this topic. Here, we demonstrate that ORE1, which is a NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factor, positively regulates aging-induced cell death in Arabidopsis(More)
Abnormal neuronal aggregation of alpha-synuclein is implicated in the development of many neurological disorders, including Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Glial cells also show extensive alpha-synuclein pathology and may contribute to disease progression. However, the mechanism that produces the glial alpha-synuclein pathology and the(More)
Microarray technologies facilitate high-throughput gene expression analysis. However, the diversity of platforms for rice gene expression analysis hinders efficient analysis. Tools to broadly integrate microarray data from different platforms are needed. In this study, we developed the Rice Oligonucleotide Array Database (ROAD, http://www.ricearray.org ) to(More)
We demonstrate that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor drug trichostatin A (TSA) reduces spinal cord inflammation, demyelination, neuronal and axonal loss and ameliorates disability in the relapsing phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). TSA up-regulates antioxidant, anti-excitotoxicity and(More)
Abnormal aggregation of α-synuclein and sustained microglial activation are important contributors to the pathogenic processes of Parkinson's disease. However, the relationship between disease-associated protein aggregation and microglia-mediated neuroinflammation remains unknown. Here, using a combination of in silico, in vitro and in vivo approaches, we(More)
Little is known about global gene expression patterns in the human neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To address this, we used high-density oligonucleotide microarray technology to compare expression levels of approximately 6,800 genes in postmortem spinal cord gray matter obtained from individuals with ALS as well as normal(More)
MOTIVATION Transcriptional profiling using microarrays can reveal important information about cellular and tissue expression phenotypes, but these measurements are costly and time consuming. Additionally, tissue sample availability poses further constraints on the number of arrays that can be analyzed in connection with a particular disease or state of(More)
Prions cause transmissible neurodegenerative diseases and replicate by conformational conversion of normal benign forms of prion protein (PrP(C)) to disease-causing PrP(Sc) isoforms. A systems approach to disease postulates that disease arises from perturbation of biological networks in the relevant organ. We tracked global gene expression in the brains of(More)
The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) is a key receptor that mediates dopamine-associated brain functions such as mood, reward, and emotion. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase whose function has been implicated in the brain reward circuit. In this study, we revealed that the serine 321 residue (S321) in the third(More)