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After activation, CD4(+) helper T (Th) cells differentiate into distinct effector subsets. Although chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 5-expressing T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are important in humoral immunity, their developmental regulation is unclear. Here we show that Tfh cells had a distinct gene expression profile and developed in vivo independently(More)
Aging induces gradual yet massive cell death in higher organisms, including annual plants. Even so, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are barely known, despite the long-standing interest in this topic. Here, we demonstrate that ORE1, which is a NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factor, positively regulates aging-induced cell death in Arabidopsis(More)
Abnormal neuronal aggregation of alpha-synuclein is implicated in the development of many neurological disorders, including Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Glial cells also show extensive alpha-synuclein pathology and may contribute to disease progression. However, the mechanism that produces the glial alpha-synuclein pathology and the(More)
Multiple transcription factors (TFs) play essential roles in plants under abiotic stress, but how these multiple TFs cooperate in abiotic stress responses remains largely unknown. In this study, we provide evidence that the NAC (for NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) TF ANAC096 cooperates with the bZIP-type TFs ABRE binding factor and ABRE binding protein (ABF/AREB)(More)
We demonstrate that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor drug trichostatin A (TSA) reduces spinal cord inflammation, demyelination, neuronal and axonal loss and ameliorates disability in the relapsing phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). TSA up-regulates antioxidant, anti-excitotoxicity and(More)
Understanding the metabolic and regulatory pathways of hepatocytes is important for biotechnological applications involving liver cells, including the development of bioartificial liver (BAL) devices. To characterize intermediary metabolism in the hepatocytes, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was applied to elucidate the changes in intracellular pathway fluxes(More)
Microarray technologies facilitate high-throughput gene expression analysis. However, the diversity of platforms for rice gene expression analysis hinders efficient analysis. Tools to broadly integrate microarray data from different platforms are needed. In this study, we developed the Rice Oligonucleotide Array Database (ROAD, http://www.ricearray.org ) to(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising means for treating degenerative or incurable diseases. Recent studies have shown that microvesicles (MVs) from MSCs (MSC-MVs) contribute to recovery of damaged tissues in animal disease models. Here, we profiled the MSC-MV proteome to investigate their therapeutic effects. LC-MS/MS analysis of(More)
Abnormal aggregation of α-synuclein and sustained microglial activation are important contributors to the pathogenic processes of Parkinson's disease. However, the relationship between disease-associated protein aggregation and microglia-mediated neuroinflammation remains unknown. Here, using a combination of in silico, in vitro and in vivo approaches, we(More)
The phytohormone auxin is a key developmental signal in plants. So far, only auxin perception has been described to trigger the release of transcription factors termed Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) from their auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) repressor proteins. Here, we show that phosphorylation of ARF7 and ARF19 by BRASSINOSTEROID-insensitive2 (BIN2)(More)