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In a test of the biotic ligand model (BLM), the uptake and toxicity of silver, in the absence or presence of the inorganic ligand, thiosulphate, were assessed for two freshwater green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Pseudokirchneriella sub-capitata, using turbidostat continuous cultures. In the initial experiments, run in the absence of thiosulphate,(More)
Rosa damascena has been manufactured as various food products, including tea, in Korea. A new flavonoid glycoside, kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)-beta-D-xylopyranoside, named roxyloside A was isolated from the buds of this plant, along with four known compounds, isoquercitrin, afzelin, cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucoside, and quercetin gentiobioside.(More)
The fruits of Capsicum annuum were extracted using 80% aqueous MeOH, and fractionated using EtOAc and water. Repeated column chromatography using silica gel, octadecyl silica gel, and Sephadex LH-20 for the EtOAc fraction led to the isolation of a new lignan glycoside and a known one, icariside E(5). From the results of spectroscopic data, including EIMS,(More)
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Rhus parviflora is referred as 'Tintidikah' in traditional medicinal system of south Asia (Ayurveda). It is used in treatment of Vāta vikāra, a condition related to neurological complications as well as cure for stomach disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS Dried and powdered fruits of R. parviflora were extracted with 80%(More)
Column chromatographic technology was applied to isolate six purified ursane triterpenoids from the calyx of Fragaria ananassa and they were identified on the basis of spectroscopic methods to be ursolic acid (1), pomolic acid (2), 2-oxo-pomolic acid (3), 3-O-acetyl pomolic acid (4), fupenzic acid (5) and euscaphic acid (6). This is the first study in which(More)
Conventional microbial water quality test methods are well known for their technical limitations, such as lack of direct pathogen detection capacity and low throughput capability. The microarray assay has recently emerged as a promising alternative for environmental pathogen monitoring. In this study, bacterial pathogens were detected in municipal(More)
As a first step toward building a comprehensive microarray, two low density DNA microarrays were constructed and evaluated for the accurate detection of wastewater pathogens. The first one involved the direct hybridization of wastewater microbial genomic DNA to the functional gene probes while the second involved PCR amplification of 23S ribosomal DNA. The(More)
Grains of sugary rice were extracted with 80% aqueous methanol, and the concentrated extracts were successively partitioned using ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water. From the n-butanol fractions, four flavonoid glycosides were isolated through repeated silica gel, octadecyl silica gel, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Based on the nuclear(More)
PCR-based analysis of Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genes has emerged as a promising tool to identify sources of fecal water pollution. In this study, three TaqMan real-time PCR assays (BacGeneral, BacHuman, and BacBovine) were developed and evaluated for their ability to quantitatively detect general (total), human-specific, and bovine-specific Bacteroidales 16S(More)
Short-term silver toxicity was determined for two freshwater algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in the presence and absence of chloride. Silver speciation in the exposure media was controlled and algal growth was measured over 6 h. For P. subcapitata, an alga with low Ag uptake fluxes, silver toxicity could be predicted on(More)