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Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent mitogenic and migratory factor that regulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of a variety of signalling proteins via intracellular production of H2O2 (refs 1, 2-3). Mammalian 2-Cys peroxiredoxin type II (Prx II; gene symbol Prdx2) is a cellular peroxidase that eliminates endogenous H2O2 produced in response to(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hepatic steatosis occurs frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Recently, several studies suggested that steatosis plays an important role as a cofactor in other liver diseases such as hepatic fibrosis, hepatitis, and liver cancer. In contrast to HCV, however, the molecular(More)
Long term hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor in pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The HBV encoded proteins, hepatitis B virus X protein and preS, appear to contribute importantly to the pathogenesis of HCC. Both are associated with oxidative stress, which can damage cellular molecules(More)
RATIONALE Peroxiredoxin 2 (Prdx2), a thiol-specific peroxidase, has been reported to regulate proinflammatory responses, vascular remodeling, and global oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE Although Prdx2 has been proposed to retard atherosclerosis development, no direct evidence and mechanisms have been reported. METHODS AND RESULTS We show that Prdx2 is highly(More)
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a family of antioxidant proteins that reduce peroxide levels by using reducing agents such as thioredoxin. These proteins were characterized to have a number of cellular functions, including cell proliferation and differentiation and protection of specific proteins from oxidative damage. However, the physiological roles of the(More)
Despite its toxicity, H(2)O(2) is produced as a signaling molecule that oxidizes critical cysteine residues of effectors such as protein tyrosine phosphatases in response to activation of cell surface receptors. It has remained unclear, however, how H(2)O(2) concentrations above the threshold required to modify effectors are achieved in the presence of the(More)
Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) of the hepatitis B virus was strongly implicated in angiogenesis and metastasis during hepatocarcinogenesis. Here, we explored the possibility of cross-talk between HBx and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), a potent transcriptional inducer of angiogenic factors. First, we showed that stability of HIF-1alpha(More)
Hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein is an important regulator of hepatic steatosis observed in patients with hepatitis B virus; however, its underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) is an essential pathway for the HBx-mediated nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation involved in hepatic liver injury. Here, we show that(More)
The differential expression patterns of antioxidant enzymes observed in the brains of patients with neurodegenerative diseases suggest an important role for reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes in neurodegeneration. The six mammalian peroxiredoxins (Prxs) comprise a novel family of anti-oxidative proteins that are widely distributed in most(More)
Organisms must be able to respond to low oxygen in a number of homeostatic and pathological contexts. Regulation of hypoxic responses via the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is well established, but evidence indicates that other, HIF-independent mechanisms are also involved. Here, we report a hypoxic response that depends on the accumulation of lactate, a(More)