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Induction of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) by epidermal growth factor (EGF) in human breast cancer cells increases their oncogenic potential and chemoresistance. The role of TGase 2 in the development of these tumor-related phenotypes remains to be elucidated, but it has been shown that expression of a dominant-negative form of TGase 2 reverses EGF-mediated(More)
Aberrant increases of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) in tumors contribute to drug resistance. The role of TGase 2 in cancer pathogenesis was unknown until we showed that TGase 2 activates NF-kappaB in the absence of kinase-dependent phosphorylation. It appears that increased expression of TGase 2 is responsible for the constitutive activation of NF-kappaB in(More)
Recently we reported that transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) activates nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) independently of I-kappaB kinase (IKK) activation, by inducing cross-linking and protein polymer formation of inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaBalpha (I-kappaBalpha). TGase 2 catalyzes covalent isopeptide bond formation between the peptide bound-glutamine and(More)
The cross-linking enzyme, Transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2), contributes to physiological homeostasis and plays a role in cell death and survival. We previously showed that down-regulation of TGase 2 by cystamine or synthetic peptide R2 promotes apoptosis in drug-resistant cancer cells by restoring the level of I-kBa, leading to inactivation of NF-kB. To better(More)
BACKGROUND Expression of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) is related to invasion and resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in several cancer cells. However, there has been only limited clinical validation of TGase 2 as an independent prognostic marker in cancer. METHODS The significance of TGase 2 expression as an invasive/migratory factor was addressed by in(More)
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the predominant form of kidney cancer, is characterized by high resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. This study shows that expression of protein cross-linking enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) is markedly increased in 7 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines in comparison to HEK293 and other cancer cell lines, such as NCI(More)
It has been suggested that nucleophosmin has an anti-apoptotic function via Bax binding. We found that nucleophosmin is a substrate of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) in cancer cells. Increased expression of TGase 2 expression is highly associated with drug resistance, and polymerization of nucleophosmin by TGase 2 also can be correlated with the drug(More)
Increased levels of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) expression have been reported in many inflammatory diseases, as well as in drug resistant cancer cells. Previous reports have shown that TGase 2 is capable of inducing nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation via depletion of inhibitor of kappaB (I-kappaB)alpha through polymerization in the absence of(More)
We describe a computational approach that integrates GRO-seq and RNA-seq data to annotate long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), with increased sensitivity for low-abundance lncRNAs. We used this approach to characterize the lncRNA transcriptome in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, including >700 previously unannotated lncRNAs. We then used information about the (1)(More)
Transglutaminase 2 (TGase2) is a calcium-dependent, cross-linking enzyme that catalyzes iso-peptide bond formation between peptide-bound lysine and glutamine residues. TGase 2 can activate NF-kappaB through the polymerization-mediated depletion of I-kappaBalpha without IKK activation. This NF-kappaB activation mechanism is associated with drug resistance in(More)