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Induction of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) by epidermal growth factor (EGF) in human breast cancer cells increases their oncogenic potential and chemoresistance. The role of TGase 2 in the development of these tumor-related phenotypes remains to be elucidated, but it has been shown that expression of a dominant-negative form of TGase 2 reverses EGF-mediated(More)
Aberrant increases of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) in tumors contribute to drug resistance. The role of TGase 2 in cancer pathogenesis was unknown until we showed that TGase 2 activates NF-kappaB in the absence of kinase-dependent phosphorylation. It appears that increased expression of TGase 2 is responsible for the constitutive activation of NF-kappaB in(More)
Recently we reported that transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) activates nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) independently of I-kappaB kinase (IKK) activation, by inducing cross-linking and protein polymer formation of inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaBalpha (I-kappaBalpha). TGase 2 catalyzes covalent isopeptide bond formation between the peptide bound-glutamine and(More)
The cross-linking enzyme, Transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2), contributes to physiological homeostasis and plays a role in cell death and survival. We previously showed that down-regulation of TGase 2 by cystamine or synthetic peptide R2 promotes apoptosis in drug-resistant cancer cells by restoring the level of I-kBa, leading to inactivation of NF-kB. To better(More)
Transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) catalyzes covalent isopeptide bond formation between glutamine and lysine residues. Recently, we reported that TGase 2 activates nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) by depleting inhibitor of NF-kappaBalpha (I-kappaBalpha) levels via polymer formation. Furthermore, TGase 2 expression synergistically increases NF-kappaB activity(More)
Activation of NF-kappaB is reported in breast cancers. NF-kappaB inhibition in breast cancer cell lines results in an increase in apoptosis. However, the reason for continuous activation of this transcription factor in breast cancer is currently unclear. Interestingly, elevated transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) expression is additionally observed in breast(More)
It has been suggested that nucleophosmin has an anti-apoptotic function via Bax binding. We found that nucleophosmin is a substrate of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) in cancer cells. Increased expression of TGase 2 expression is highly associated with drug resistance, and polymerization of nucleophosmin by TGase 2 also can be correlated with the drug(More)
Expression of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) is related to invasion and resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in several cancer cells. However, there has been only limited clinical validation of TGase 2 as an independent prognostic marker in cancer. The significance of TGase 2 expression as an invasive/migratory factor was addressed by in vitro assays(More)
Transglutaminase 2 (TGase2) is a calcium-dependent, cross-linking enzyme that catalyzes iso-peptide bond formation between peptide-bound lysine and glutamine residues. TGase 2 can activate NF-kappaB through the polymerization-mediated depletion of I-kappaBalpha without IKK activation. This NF-kappaB activation mechanism is associated with drug resistance in(More)
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the predominant form of kidney cancer, is characterized by high resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. This study shows that expression of protein cross-linking enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) is markedly increased in 7 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines in comparison to HEK293 and other cancer cell lines, such as NCI(More)