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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of aggregated beta-amyloid (Abeta), which triggers a cellular stress response called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR signaling pathway is a cellular defense system for dealing with the accumulation of misfolded proteins but switches to apoptosis when endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress(More)
A presynaptic membrane disturbance is an essential process for the release of various neurotransmitters. Ceramide, which is a tumor suppressive lipid, has been shown to act as a channel-forming molecule and serve as a precursor of ceramide-1-phosphate, which can disturb the cellular membrane. This study found that while permeable ceramide increases the rate(More)
We characterized the alpha(1B)-adrenoreceptor (alpha(1B)-AR)-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) signaling involving G alpha(h) (transglutaminase II, TGII) and phospholipase C (PLC)-delta 1 using DDT1-MF2 cell. Expression of wild-type TGII and a TGII mutant lacking transglutaminase activity resulted in significant increases in a rapid peak and a sustained level(More)
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the removal of fatty acid residues from phosphoglycerides. The enzyme is postulated to be involved in several human brain disorders, although little is known regarding the status of PLA2 activity in human CNS. We therefore have characterized some aspects of the PLA2 activity present in the(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of aggregated beta-amyloid (Ab), which triggers a cellular stress response called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR signaling pathway is a cellular defense system for dealing with the accumulation of misfolded proteins but switches to apoptosis when endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is(More)
Paraquat dichloride (N,N-dimethyl-4-4'-bipiridinium, PQ) is an extremely toxic chemical that is widely used in herbicides. PQ generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causes multiple organ failure. In particular, PQ has been reported to be an immunotoxic agrochemical compound. PQ was shown to decrease the number of macrophages in rats and suppress(More)
Human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig) is an immunosuppressive therapeutic, and recently produced rice cell-derived hCTLA4Ig (hCTLA4IgP) reportedly exhibits in vitro immunosuppressive activities equivalent to those of Chinese hamster ovary cell-derived hCTLA4Ig (hCTLA4IgM). However, limitations of hCTLA4IgP include shortened in(More)
Ceramide is produced by sphingomyelinase (SMase) and it plays a key role in cellular responses such as apoptosis. In this study, we report the purification and characterization of neutral SMase2 (nSMase2) from bovine brain tissue. Triton X-100 extracts of bovine brain membranes were purified in nine steps, including sequential chromatography. The specific(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neuronal regeneration has emerged as a strategy to treat neuronal degeneration-associated disorders. However, direct NGF administration is limited by the occurrence of adverse effects at high doses of NGF. Therefore, development of a therapeutic strategy to promote the NGF trophic effect is required. In view of the lack of(More)
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