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Calcium influx through N-type calcium channels mediates synaptic transmission at numerous central synapses and transduces nociceptive information in the spinal dorsal horn. However, the precise role of N-type calcium channels in pain perception is not fully elucidated. To address this issue, we generated and analyzed knockout mice for alpha(1B,) the(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of aggregated beta-amyloid (Abeta), which triggers a cellular stress response called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR signaling pathway is a cellular defense system for dealing with the accumulation of misfolded proteins but switches to apoptosis when endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress(More)
A presynaptic membrane disturbance is an essential process for the release of various neurotransmitters. Ceramide, which is a tumor suppressive lipid, has been shown to act as a channel-forming molecule and serve as a precursor of ceramide-1-phosphate, which can disturb the cellular membrane. This study found that while permeable ceramide increases the rate(More)
We characterized the alpha(1B)-adrenoreceptor (alpha(1B)-AR)-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) signaling involving G alpha(h) (transglutaminase II, TGII) and phospholipase C (PLC)-delta 1 using DDT1-MF2 cell. Expression of wild-type TGII and a TGII mutant lacking transglutaminase activity resulted in significant increases in a rapid peak and a sustained level(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of aggregated beta-amyloid (Ab), which triggers a cellular stress response called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR signaling pathway is a cellular defense system for dealing with the accumulation of misfolded proteins but switches to apoptosis when endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is(More)
Paraquat dichloride (N,N-dimethyl-4-4'-bipiridinium, PQ) is an extremely toxic chemical that is widely used in herbicides. PQ generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causes multiple organ failure. In particular, PQ has been reported to be an immunotoxic agrochemical compound. PQ was shown to decrease the number of macrophages in rats and suppress(More)
Human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig) is an immunosuppressive therapeutic, and recently produced rice cell-derived hCTLA4Ig (hCTLA4IgP) reportedly exhibits in vitro immunosuppressive activities equivalent to those of Chinese hamster ovary cell-derived hCTLA4Ig (hCTLA4IgM). However, limitations of hCTLA4IgP include shortened in(More)
The cerebral cortical sphingomyelinase (SMase) activities were detected in the cytosolic and the membrane fractions of cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, brainstem, and thalamus/midbrain of senescence-accelerated mouse-prone/10 (SAM-P/10) and SAM-resistant/1 (SAM-R/1) with advancing age, respectively. The SMase activity was increased uniquely in the(More)
Ceramide is produced by sphingomyelinase (SMase) and it plays a key role in cellular responses such as apoptosis. In this study, we report the purification and characterization of neutral SMase2 (nSMase2) from bovine brain tissue. Triton X-100 extracts of bovine brain membranes were purified in nine steps, including sequential chromatography. The specific(More)
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