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It is generally believed that mechanical amplification by cochlear hair cells is necessary to enhance the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of hearing. In the mammalian ear, the basis of cochlear amplification is believed to be the voltage-dependent electromotility of outer hair cells (OHCs). The avian basilar papilla contains tall and short hair cells,(More)
Substance P (SP), a member of the tachykinin family of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, has been identified on spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in the inner ear; however, its high affinity receptor, neurokinin-1 (NK1), has not been identified and the physiological effects of SP on SGNs are not well understood. To address these issues, immunolabeling,(More)
To develop the BALB/c mouse strain as an animal model for the study of progressive sensorineural hearing loss, mice ranging in age from young adult through middle age were studied. Auditory brainstem response thresholds, histopathology [cytocochleograms for hair cells, the packing density of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs), the number of neurons and overall(More)
The goals were to study the physiological effects of auditory nerve myelinopathy in chinchillas and to test the hypothesis that myelin abnormalities could account for auditory neuropathy, a hearing disorder characterized by absent auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) with preserved outer hair cell function. Doxorubicin, a cytotoxic drug used as an(More)
Bilirubin can cause temporary or permanent sensorineural deafness in newborn babies with hyperbilirubinemia. However, the underlying targets and physiological effects of bilirubin-induced damage in the peripheral auditory system are unclear. Using cochlear functional assays and electron microscopy imaging of the inner ear in neonatal guinea pigs, we show(More)
Amino acid concentrations were measured in the cochlear nucleus for a group of 20 chinchillas: four each of control and 4, 8, 29, and 85 days after treatment with the ototoxic anti-tumor drug carboplatin (100 mg/kg, i.p.). The treated chinchillas showed various extents of inner hair cell loss, generally more complete at longer survival times, but little(More)
Gonadectomized and intact adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice of both sexes were exposed for 12h nightly to an augmented acoustic environment (AAE): repetitive bursts of a 70dB SPL noise band. The high-frequency AAE (HAAE) was a half-octave band centered at 20kHz; the low-frequency AAE (LAAE) was a 2-8kHz band. The effects of sex, gonadectomy, and AAE treatment on(More)
DBA/2J (D2) mice, which exhibit very early progressive sensorineural hearing loss, were treated for 12h nightly with an augmented acoustic environment (AAE) initiated before the onset of hearing. The AAE consisted of repetitive bursts of a 70 dB sound pressure level, half-octave noise band centered at 20 kHz (i.e. low frequencies were excluded). At 55 days(More)
Gonadectomized and surgically intact adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice of both sexes were exposed for 12h nightly to a high-frequency augmented acoustic environment (AAE): repetitive bursts of a half-octave noise band centered at 20 kHz, 70 dB SPL. The effects of sex, gonadectomy, and AAE treatment on genetic progressive hearing loss (exhibited by B6 mice) were(More)
Carboplatin, a drug widely used against solid head and neck tumors, selectively destroys cochlear inner hair cells and type I auditory nerve fibers in chinchilla. This should affect neurotransmitter chemistry, involving amino acids, where the type I auditory nerve fibers terminate in the cochlear nucleus. Using microdissection combined with high-performance(More)