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Cytosolic foreign DNA is detected by pattern recognition receptors and mainly induces type I IFN production. We found that transfection of different types of DNA into various untreated cells induces type III IFN (IFN-λ1) rather than type I IFN, indicating the presence of uncharacterized DNA sensor(s). A pull-down assay using cytosolic proteins identified(More)
The piRNA machinery is known for its role in mediating epigenetic silencing of transposons. Recent studies suggest that this function also involves piRNA-guided cleavage of transposon-derived transcripts. As many piRNAs also appear to have the capacity to target diverse mRNAs, this raises the intriguing possibility that piRNAs may act extensively as siRNAs(More)
BACKGROUND Figs and fig-pollinating wasp species usually display a highly specific one-to-one association. However, more and more studies have revealed that the "one-to-one" rule has been broken. Co-pollinators have been reported, but we do not yet know how they evolve. They may evolve from insect speciation induced or facilitated by Wolbachia which can(More)
Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium (inflorescence) habitat for the lives of a complex assemblage of Chalcidoid insects. These diverse fig wasp species have intimate ecological relationships within the closed world of the fig syconia. Previous surveys of Wolbachia, maternally inherited(More)
Wolbachia is a genus of bacterial endosymbionts that impacts the breeding systems of their hosts. Wolbachia can confuse the patterns of mitochondrial variation, including DNA barcodes, because it influences the pathways through which mitochondria are inherited. We examined the extent to which these endosymbionts are detected in routine DNA barcoding,(More)
It has been shown that intracerebroventricular injection of urotensin II (UII)-induced hypotensive and bradycardiac responses. Here, we tested the cardiovascular roles of UII in different brain areas by microinjection of UII into the A1 and A2 areas (noradrenergic cells found in the lower part of the medulla that have been designated either A1 or A2 areas),(More)
BACKGROUND The interactions of fig wasps and their host figs provide a model for investigating co-evolution. Fig wasps have specialized morphological characters and lifestyles thought to be adaptations to living in the fig's syconium. Although these aspects of natural history are well documented, the genetic mechanism(s) underlying these changes remain(s)(More)
piRNAs are a class of small RNAs that is most abundantly expressed in the animal germ line. Presently, substantial research is going on to reveal the functions of piRNAs in the epigenetic and post-transcriptional regulation of transposons and genes. A piRNA database for collection, annotation and structuring of these data will be a valuable contribution to(More)
Oobius agrili sp.n. and Avetianella xystrocerae sp.n. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) are described from China. Morphological characters of the new species are illustrated. O. agrili is an egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and A. xystrocerae is an egg parasitoid of the wood borer Xystrocera globosa(More)
Among the Chalcidoids, hymenopteran parasitic wasps that have diversified lifestyles, a partial mitochondrial genome has been reported only from Nasonia. This genome had many unusual features, especially a dramatic reorganization and a high rate of evolution. Comparisons based on more mitochondrial genomic data from the same superfamily were required to(More)