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Brain atrophy measured by MRI is a potentially useful tool for monitoring disease progression in multiple sclerosis. The location, extent and mechanisms of brain atrophy in early disease are not well documented. Using quantitative MRI, this study investigated whole brain, grey and white matter atrophy in clinically early relapsing-remitting multiple(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormalities in normal-appearing brain tissues may contribute to disability in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), where few lesions are seen on conventional imaging. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the mechanisms underlying disease progression in the early phase of PPMS by measuring metabolite concentrations in normal-appearing white matter(More)
While much work has concentrated on focal white matter (WM) lesions in multiple sclerosis, there is growing evidence to suggest that normal-appearing WM (NAWM) and grey matter (GM) are also involved in the disease process. This study investigated multiple sclerosis disease effects on NAWM and cortical GM (CGM) metabolite concentrations, and the(More)
Normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in established multiple sclerosis has been shown to be abnormal using a variety of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, including proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), although the stage at which these changes first appear is less clear. Using a 1.5 T scanner and single-voxel (1)H-MRS [TR 3000 ms, TE 30 ms, point-resolved(More)
BACKGROUND Measuring perfusion provides a potential indication of metabolic activity in brain tissue. Studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) have identified areas of decreased perfusion in grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM), but the pattern in clinical subgroups is unclear. OBJECTIVES This study investigated perfusion changes in differing MS clinical(More)
BACKGROUND Brain atrophy, in excess of that seen with normal aging, has been observed early in the clinical course of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Previous work has suggested that at this stage of the disease, gray matter (GM) atrophy progresses more rapidly than the white matter (WM) atrophy. OBJECTIVES To characterize the evolution of(More)
Brain atrophy appears to occur in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in excess of that associated with normal ageing, and may be observed early in the clinical course of the disease. The dynamics and tissue specificity of this process remain unclear This preliminary study explored the evolution of brain grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume loss(More)
Previous in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H-MRSI) studies have found reduced levels of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, the surrounding normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and cortical grey matter (CGM), suggesting neuronal and axonal dysfunction and loss. Other metabolites, such as myoinositol (Ins),(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding long-term disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) is a key goal of research; it is relevant to how we monitor and treat the disease. OBJECTIVES The Magnetic Imaging in MS (MAGNIMS) collaborative group sought to determine the relationship of brain lesion load, and brain and spinal cord atrophy, with physical disability in patients(More)
Neuronal damage and loss is likely to underlie irreversible disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). The time of onset, location and extent of neuronal damage in early disease are all uncertain. To explore this issue 16 patients with short duration, mild relapsing-remitting disease (mean disease duration 1.8 years, median EDSS 1) were studied using short echo(More)