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Prolonged survival was enjoyed by fetal and postnatal testis and midgestational renal grafts transplanted beneath the renal capsule of adult congenic mice, confirming previous findings in nonimmunosuppressed outbred rats (3,5). The strategies that enable immature tissues to escape rejection in a graft survival assay were studied by comparing expression of(More)
As with agents capable of causing the release of IL 1, IL 1 itself is capable of modulating certain tolerance-inducing events. Under the condition used in the present study, it previously has been firmly established that injection of A/J mice with DHGG induces a state of antigen-specific tolerance in both T helper (Th) and B cells. The tolerance in the B(More)
Recent reports have indicated the possibility that HIV-2 has been introduced into groups at risk for AIDS in Brazil. We studied sera collected in 1987 and 1988 from 1,821 at-risk individuals from diverse regions in Brazil. Of the 1,821 sera, 367 (20%) were confirmed as being positive for HIV-1 antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA),(More)
We evaluated the immunogenicity of the testis by transplanting adult, postnatal, and fetal rat testicular tissue into outbred adult female and male rats for 10 days. Testis grafts were evaluated morphometrically and histologically, and selectively compared to renal grafts previously reported in part. Testis grafts from days 15 to 21 of gestation, and from(More)
The injection of deaggregated human gamma-globulin (DHGG) into mice results in the establishment of specific immunologic unresponsiveness in T and B lymphocytes. However, the additional injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 3 hr later converts the tolerogenic DHGG into an immunogen for both helper T and B cells. This generation of immunocompetence(More)
An extract from the pathogenic actinomycete Nocardia brasiliensis was mitogenic for murine lymphocytes. This deoxyribonucleic acid-synthetic response of whole spleen cells peaked after 48 h in culture at concentrations of Nocardia extract ranging from 10 to 200 micrograms/ml. The extract appeared to be a mitogen for B lymphocytes since cultures of spleen(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted member of the Flaviviridae family that has emerged in recent years to become a serious public health threat. Given the sporadic nature of WNV epidemics both temporally and geographically, there is an urgent need for a vaccine that can rapidly provide effective immunity. Protection from WNV infection is(More)
Flaviviruses comprise a diverse family of viruses that are cumulatively responsible for hundreds of millions of cases of infection annually. The Flavivirus genus includes both insect-vectored viruses, such as yellow fever and dengue, and non-vectored viruses such as HCV; the viruses have a broad range of disease presentation and geographic distribution. No(More)