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The HIV-1 Tat protein is a potent chemoattractant for monocytes. We observed that Tat shows conserved amino acids corresponding to critical sequences of the chemokines, a family of molecules known for their potent ability to attract monocytes. Synthetic Tat and a peptide (CysL24-51) encompassing the "chemokine-like" region of Tat induced a rapid and(More)
Transgenic animal studies have linked the expression of the HIV-1 tat gene to the appearance of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-like lesions. We have recently shown that recombinant tat is angiogenic in vivo, and that tat angiogenic response is enhanced by heparin. Also in the rabbit cornea model, recombinant HIV-1 tat alone is poorly angiogenic, but gives a good(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat is chemotactic for monocytes and dendritic cells, an activity that could play a key role in the expansion of HIV infection of accessory cells. To date, domains of Tat previously found to interact with cell surface molecules have shown only partial chemotactic activity toward monocytes. Using overlapping Tat peptides,(More)
The alpha 3 beta 1 integrin is elevated in several types of metastatic tumor and has been associated with increased migration and invasion. Our analysis of a series of mammary carcinomas of different histotypes and their corresponding metastases demonstrated significantly increased expression of alpha 3 beta 1 in the tumor metastases. We therefore studied(More)
We investigated the role of the HIV-1 protein Tat in AIDS-associated dementia, by studying its toxicity on rat cortical and hippocampal neurons in vitro. We evaluated the involvement of astroglial cells and of caspase transduction pathway in determining Tat toxicity. Here we report that synthetic Tat(1-86) induced apoptotic death on cultured rat neurons in(More)
Somatostatin and its analogs are active in the inhibition of SST receptor-positive endocrine neoplasms, but their activity and mechanism in nonendocrine tumors is not clear. Somatostatin potently inhibited growth of a Kaposi's sarcoma xenograft in nude mice, yet in vitro the tumor cells did not express any known somatostatin receptors and were not growth(More)
Somatostatin was reported to inhibit Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cell (KS-Imm) xenografts through an antiangiogenic activity. Here, we show that somatostatin blocks growth of established KS-Imm tumors with the same efficacy as adriamycin, a clinically effective cytotoxic drug. Whereas KS-Imm cells do not express somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), endothelial cells(More)
A heparan sulfate proteoglycan is a component of all basement membranes. This molecule consists of three heparan sulfate side chains linked to a large core protein of approximately 400 kDa. We have isolated seven overlapping murine cDNA clones that encode the entire mRNA sequence of 12.685 kilobases of this molecule. This sequence has a single open reading(More)
The HIV-1 Tat protein transactivates HIV, viral and some host cell genes. Tat can be released by infected cells and acts extracellularly in the microenvironment, regulating functions of immunocompetent and mesenchymal cells. One of the most striking effects of Tat is the induction of a functional program in vascular cells related to angiogenesis and(More)
Gene and protein expression of Y-79 retinoblastoma cells growing on poly(D-lysine) is switched from a photoreceptor-like to a conventional neuron-like pathway by the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin. Unlike other cell systems where laminin influences differentiation, Y-79 cells can neither attach to nor chemotactically respond to laminin. However,(More)