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BACKGROUND Although habitual physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) are now well-established determinants of metabolic disease, there is scarcity of such data from Africa. The aim of this study was to describe objectively measured PAEE and CRF in different ethnic populations of rural Kenya. METHODS A(More)
The anticonvulsant gabapentin is effective against neuropathic pain, but the primary site(s) and mechanism(s) of action are unknown. In order to explore the relative contribution of spinal versus supra-spinal mechanisms to the antinociceptive effect of gabapentin, this study used two differentially integrated nociceptive tests. We systematically compared(More)
This study was undertaken to determine the effects of ingesting either glucose (trial G) or glucose plus branched-chain amino acids (BCAA: trial B), compared with placebo (trial P), during prolonged exercise. Nine well-trained cyclists with a maximal oxygen uptake of 63.1 +/- 1.5 ml O2. min-1.kg-1 performed three laboratory trials consisting of 100 km of(More)
Injury to the trigeminal nervous system may induce severe pain states. This study examined the antinociceptive effect of the novel anticonvulsants, gabapentin and lamotrigine, in a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain produced by chronic constriction of one infraorbital nerve. Responsiveness to von Frey filament stimulation of the vibrissal pad was(More)
We have previously shown that rats with a painful peripheral neuropathy develop dependence without tolerance after repetitive doses [3mg/kg subcutaneously (s.c.)] of morphine. After injections of a higher dose (10mg/kg s.c.) the animals develop tolerance that can be prevented by the glycine/N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, (+)-HA966. This(More)
The inability of opioids to control pain over time may be influenced by different factors such as drug tolerance, hyperalgesia due to repeated morphine administration or progression of the original disease. In addition, chronic pain may alter morphine tolerance development. This study examined whether chronic morphine exposure differently affects mechanical(More)
1. We evaluated the ability of the functional antagonist at the glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex, (+)-(1-Hydroxy-3-aminopyrrolodine-2-one) ((+)-HA966), to modulate the antinociceptive action of systemic morphine in a rat model of neuropathic pain produced by chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve. Mechanical(More)
Chronic constriction injury to the infraorbital nerve (CCI-ION) by loose ligatures may represent a useful model for some trigeminal neuropathic pain disorders. Activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is involved in the induction and maintenance of neuropathic pain and may contribute to the poor opioid sensitivity of this syndrome. We(More)
The prognostic significance of nuclear count, nuclear area fraction, and mean nuclear area estimated by automatic image analysis was evaluated in benign meningiomas. One hundred thirty-two meningiomas without recurrences, 39 meningiomas that recurred, and 40 first recurrences were examined. The tumors were classified according to age and sex of patients,(More)
The ability of a pretreatment with the cholecystokininB-receptor (CCK[B]) antagonist L-365,260 to prevent the development of morphine dependence was studied in normal and neuropathic (unilateral peripheral neuropathy) rats. A 4-day pretreatment regimen with two daily s.c. injections of either saline+saline, saline+morphine (3.0 mg/kg) or L-365,260 (0.2(More)