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Motivated by the vast amount of information that is rapidly accumulating about the human brain in digital form, we embarked upon a program in 1992 to develop a four-dimensional probabilistic atlas and reference system for the human brain. Through an International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) a dataset is being collected that includes 7000 subjects(More)
The degree to which individual variation in brain structure in humans is genetically or environmentally determined is as yet not well understood. We studied the brains of 54 monozygotic (33 male, 21 female) and 58 dizygotic (17 male, 20 female, 21 opposite sex) pairs of twins and 34 of their full siblings (19 male, 15 female) by means of high resolution(More)
Although common sense suggests that environmental influences increasingly account for individual differences in behavior as experiences accumulate during the course of life, this hypothesis has not previously been tested, in part because of the large sample sizes needed for an adequately powered analysis. Here we show for general cognitive ability that, to(More)
Individual differences in inspection time explain about 20% of IQ test variance. To determine whether the association between inspection time and IQ is mediated by common genes or by a common environmental factor, inspection time and IQ were assessed in an extended twin design. Data from 688 participants from 271 families were collected as part of a large(More)
Reduction of telomere length has been postulated to be a causal factor in cellular aging. Human telomeres terminate in tandemly arranged repeat arrays consisting of the (TTAGGG) motif. The length of these arrays in cells from human mitotic tissues is inversely related to the age of the donor, indicating telomere reduction with age. In addition to telomere(More)
It has often been proposed that faster central nervous system (CNS) processing amounts to a smarter brain. One way to index speed of CNS processing is through the assessment of brain oscillations via electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. The dominant frequency (peak frequency) with which neuronal feedback loops in an adult human brain oscillate in a(More)
We estimated the genetic and nongenetic (environmental) contributions to individual differences in the background EEG power spectrum in two age cohorts with mean ages of 26.2 and 49.4 years. Nineteen-lead EEG was recorded with eyes closed from 142 monozygotic and 167 dizygotic twin pairs and their siblings, totaling 760 subjects. We obtained power spectra(More)
Data from the Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN) genome-wide association study (GWAS) in major depressive disorder (MDD) were used to explore previously reported candidate gene and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations in MDD. A systematic literature search of candidate genes associated with MDD in case-control studies was performed(More)
PF Sullivan, EJC de Geus, G Willemsen, MR James, JH Smit, T Zandbelt, V Arolt, BT Baune, D Blackwood, S Cichon, WL Coventry, K Domschke, A Farmer, M Fava, SD Gordon, Q He, AC Heath, P Heutink, F Holsboer, WJ Hoogendijk, JJ Hottenga, Y Hu, M Kohli, D Lin, S Lucae, DJ MacIntyre, W Maier, KA McGhee, P McGuffin, GW Montgomery, WJ Muir, WA Nolen, MM Nöthen, RH(More)
In a study of 1600 Dutch adolescent twin pairs we found that 59% of the inter-individual variation in smoking behaviour could be attributed to shared environmental influences and 31% to genetic factors. The magnitude of the genetic and environmental effects did not differ between boys and girls. However, environmental effects shared by male twins and(More)