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It is widely accepted that while release of amino acid neurotransmitters occurs with relatively high fidelity, peptidergic synapses require clustered bursts of action potentials for optimal transmitter release. Here we describe for the first time the occurrence and mechanisms of bursting by neurones in the subfornical organ (SFO), cells that utilize the(More)
The constancy of plasma osmolality demands that salt and water concentration within the extracellular fluid be constantly monitored and regulated within a few percentage points. The circumventricular organs in general, and the subfornical organ in particular, have long been proposed to be the site of the osmosensitivity. Isolated subfornical organ neurons(More)
The subfornical organ is one of a specialized group of CNS structures devoid of a significant blood-brain barrier, collectively known as the circumventricular organs. While peptides are normally excluded from access to most regions of the CNS, the subfornical organ contains neurons with a high density of receptors for many circulating peptides, including(More)
In this review we present the case for both hormonal and neurotransmitter actions of angiotensin II (ANG) in the control of neuronal excitability in a simple neural pathway involved in central autonomic regulation. We will present both single-cell and whole-animal data highlighting hormonal roles for ANG in controlling the excitability of subfornical organ(More)
Over the past 20 years a growing body of evidence has been directed to establishing the roles of angiotensin II (ANG) within the central nervous system. When this work began in the late 1970s the concept that this circulating hormone may also act as a neurotransmitter within the brain was contrary to the established dogma regarding synaptic transmission.(More)
While most central nervous system (CNS) neurons receive the majority of their input through direct synaptic connections, there is evidence suggesting that they are in fact susceptible to modulation by changes in extracellular ionic composition during both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In many regions of the CNS, there exists an identified(More)
1. Here we have characterized Ca(2+) currents in rat subfornical organ neurones, and their modulation by angiotensin II. Currents were of the high voltage-activated (HNA) subtype, as the threshold for activation was near -30 mV (mid-point potential (V(50)) of activation -14 mV). Using Ba(2+) as the charge carrier, little inactivation was observed, and it(More)
Here we report that neurons of the subfornical organ (SFO), a circumventricular structure devoid of a blood-brain barrier, show time-dependent, inward rectification indicative of the presence of a subthreshold, hyperpolarization-activated inward current (Ih). In whole-cell patch clamp experiments of isolated SFO neurons, we observed a Cs+-sensitive Ih in(More)
Insulin-induced hypoglycemia inhibits luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and has been used as a model to study stress-induced inhibition of reproductive function. Endogenous opioid peptides have been implicated in mediating the inhibitory effect of hypoglycemia on LH secretion in sheep and rat. The objective of the present study was to determine if(More)