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DNA polymerase η is an A-T mutator in somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin variable genes
To determine whether DNA polymerase η plays a role in the hypermutation of immunoglobulin variable genes, we examined the frequency and pattern of substitutions in variable VH6 genes from theExpand
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Increased Hypermutation at G and C Nucleotides in Immunoglobulin Variable Genes from Mice Deficient in the MSH2 Mismatch Repair Protein
Rearranged immunoglobulin variable genes are extensively mutated after stimulation of B lymphocytes by antigen. Mutations are likely generated by an error-prone DNA polymerase, and the mismatchExpand
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Altered spectra of hypermutation in antibodies from mice deficient for the DNA mismatch repair protein PMS2.
Mutations are introduced into rearranged Ig variable genes at a frequency of 10(-2) mutations per base pair by an unknown mechanism. Assuming that DNA repair pathways generate or remove mutations,Expand
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Insertion of 2 kb of bacteriophage DNA between an immunoglobulin promoter and leader exon stops somatic hypermutation in a kappa transgene.
Somatic hypermutation in rearranged immunoglobulin variable genes occurs in a 2kb region of DNA that is delimited on the 5' side by the promoter and on the 3' side by intron DNA. To identify sequenceExpand
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Hypermutation in Ig V genes from mice deficient in the MLH1 mismatch repair protein.
During somatic hypermutation of Ig V genes, mismatched nucleotide substitutions become candidates for removal by the DNA mismatch repair pathway. Previous studies have shown that V genes from miceExpand
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Third complementarity‐determining region of mutated VH immunoglobulin genes contains shorter V, D, J, P, and N components than non‐mutated genes
The third complementarity‐determining region (CDR3) of immunoglobulin variable genes for the heavy chain (VH) has been shown to be shorter in length in hypermutated antibodies than inExpand
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Normal Somatic Hypermutation of Ig Genes in the Absence of 8-Hydroxyguanine-DNA Glycosylase
The hypermutation cascade in Ig V genes can be initiated by deamination of cytosine in DNA to uracil by activation-induced cytosine deaminase and its removal by uracil-DNA glycosylase. To determineExpand
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Impact of Age on Hypermutation of Immunoglobulin Variable Genes in Humans
Chronological aging is associated with an accumulation of DNA mutations that results in cancer formation. The effect of aging on spontaneous mutations in humans is difficult to study becauseExpand
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The role of promoter-intron interactions in directing hypermutation.
Evolution is driven by a revolving process of mutation and natural selection during which the fittest individuals survive under harsh selective pressures in their environment. In a molecularExpand
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Dual enigma of somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin variable genes: targeting and mechanism
Summary: The immunoglobulin loci are uniquely unstable regions of the genome which undergo as much mutation and selection in a matter of days as a species can undergo in generations of evolution. WeExpand
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