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Coordination of circadian timing in mammals
Time in the biological sense is measured by cycles that range from milliseconds to years. Circadian rhythms, which measure time on a scale of 24 h, are generated by one of the most ubiquitous andExpand
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Molecular analysis of mammalian circadian rhythms.
In mammals, a master circadian "clock" resides in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus. The SCN clock is composed of multiple, single-cell circadian oscillators, which, whenExpand
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Three period Homologs in Mammals: Differential Light Responses in the Suprachiasmatic Circadian Clock and Oscillating Transcripts Outside of Brain
We have cloned and characterized the mouse cDNA of a third mammalian homolog of the Drosophila period gene and designated it mPer3. The mPER3 protein shows approximately 37% amino acid identity withExpand
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Interacting molecular loops in the mammalian circadian clock.
We show that, in the mouse, the core mechanism for the master circadian clock consists of interacting positive and negative transcription and translation feedback loops. Analysis of Clock/ClockExpand
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Cloning and characterization of a mammalian melatonin receptor that mediates reproductive and circadian responses
The pineal hormone melatonin regulates seasonal reproductive function and modulates circadian rhythms in mammals. We now report the cloning and characterization of a high affinity receptor forExpand
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mCRY1 and mCRY2 Are Essential Components of the Negative Limb of the Circadian Clock Feedback Loop
We determined that two mouse cryptochrome genes, mCry1 and mCry2, act in the negative limb of the clock feedback loop. In cell lines, mPER proteins (alone or in combination) have modest effects onExpand
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Differential Functions of mPer1, mPer2, and mPer3 in the SCN Circadian Clock
The role of mPer1 and mPer2 in regulating circadian rhythms was assessed by disrupting these genes. Mice homozygous for the targeted allele of either mPer1 or mPer2 had severely disrupted locomotorExpand
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Molecular characterization of a second melatonin receptor expressed in human retina and brain: the Mel1b melatonin receptor.
A G protein-coupled receptor for the pineal hormone melatonin was recently cloned from mammals and designated the Mel1a melatonin receptor. We now report the cloning of a second G protein-coupledExpand
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Two period Homologs: Circadian Expression and Photic Regulation in the Suprachiasmatic Nuclei
We have characterized a mammalian homolog of the Drosophila period gene and designated it Per2. The PER2 protein shows >40% amino acid identity to the protein of another mammalian per homologExpand
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A Molecular Mechanism Regulating Rhythmic Output from the Suprachiasmatic Circadian Clock
We examined the transcriptional regulation of the clock-controlled arginine vasopressin gene in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). A core clock mechanism in mouse SCN appears to involve aExpand
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