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Origins and evolutionary genomics of the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic
It is shown that the new swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged in Mexico and the United States was derived from several viruses circulating in swine, and that the initial transmission to humans occurred several months before recognition of the outbreak.
Dating the emergence of pandemic influenza viruses
The results indicate that genetic components of the 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus circulated in mammalian hosts as early as 1911 and was not likely to be a recently introduced avian virus, and mean estimates of the time of most recent common ancestor suggest that the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains may have been generated through reassortment events in unknown mammalian hosts and involved multiple avian viruses preceding pandemic recognition.
Identification of the Progenitors of Indonesian and Vietnamese Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Viruses from Southern China
ABSTRACT The transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus to Southeast Asian countries triggered the first major outbreak and transmission wave in late 2003, accelerating the pandemic
Characterization of Avian Influenza Viruses A (H5N1) from Wild Birds, Hong Kong, 2004–2008
Repeated detection of subclade 2.3.2 viruses in nonpasserine birds from different regions suggests possible establishment of this lineage in wild bird species.
Multiple Sublineages of Influenza A Virus (H5N1), Vietnam, 2005−2007
Clade 2.3.4 viruses that are dominant in southern China have now spread to northern Vietnam, scientists have found.
Ancient origins determine global biogeography of hot and cold desert cyanobacteria
Temporally scaled phylogenetic analyses showed no evidence of recent inter-regional gene flow, indicating populations have not shared common ancestry since before the formation of modern continents, and indicates that global distribution of desert cyanobacteria has not resulted from widespread contemporary dispersal but is an ancient evolutionary legacy.
Detection of diverse astroviruses from bats in China.
  • H. Zhu, D. Chu, Y. Guan
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    The Journal of general virology
  • 1 April 2009
This study examined the prevalence of this virus family in bat specimens collected from a large geographical region of mainland China and revealed a remarkably high genetic diversity of astroviruses; five monophyletic groups were identified in bats, including two novel groups.
Evolutionary Dynamics and Emergence of Panzootic H5N1 Influenza Viruses
The results suggest that the transmission of reassortant viruses through the mixed poultry population in farms and markets in China has selected HPAI H5N1 viruses that are well adapted to multiple hosts and reduced the interspecies transmission barrier of those viruses.
Long-term evolution and transmission dynamics of swine influenza A virus
Swine influenza A viruses (SwIV) cause significant economic losses in animal husbandry as well as instances of human disease and occasionally give rise to human pandemics, including that caused by