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The repertoire for pattern recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system is defined by cooperation between toll-like receptors.
TLDR
The data suggest that TLRs sample the contents of the phagosome independent of the nature of the contents, and can establish a combinatorial repertoire to discriminate among the large number of pathogen-associated molecular patterns found in nature.
Mechanisms of phagocytosis in macrophages.
TLDR
Macrophages also play an important role in the recognition and clearance of apoptotic cells; a notable feature of this process is the absence of an inflammatory response.
The innate immune response to bacterial flagellin is mediated by Toll-like receptor 5
TLDR
It is reported that mammalian TLR5 recognizes bacterial flagellin from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that activation of the receptor mobilizes the nuclear factor NF-κB and stimulates tumour necrosis factor-α production, and the data suggest thatTLR5, a member of the evolutionarily conserved Toll-like receptor family, has evolved to permit mammals specifically to detect flageLLated bacterial pathogens.
Phagocytosis of microbes: complexity in action.
TLDR
This review examines this complexity and describes how during recognition, multiple receptors are simultaneously engaged to mediate internalization, activate microbial killing, and induce the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.
Collaborative Induction of Inflammatory Responses by Dectin-1 and Toll-like Receptor 2
TLDR
This report examines how dectin-1, a lectin family receptor for β-glucans, collaborates with TLRs in recognizing microbes and demonstrates that collaborative recognition of distinct microbial components by different classes of innate immune receptors is crucial in orchestrating inflammatory responses.
The Toll-like receptor 2 is recruited to macrophage phagosomes and discriminates between pathogens
TLDR
It is shown that Toll-like receptor 2 is recruited specifically to macrophage phagosomes containing yeast, and that a point mutation in the receptor abrogates inflammatory responses to yeast and Gram-positive bacteria, but not to Gram-negative bacteria.
Interactions Between Commensal Fungi and the C-Type Lectin Receptor Dectin-1 Influence Colitis
TLDR
It is shown that the mammalian gut contains a rich fungal community that interacts with the immune system through the innate immune receptor Dectin-1, which substantially expands the repertoire of organisms interacting with the intestinal immune system to influence health and disease.
Dectin-1 activates Syk tyrosine kinase in a dynamic subset of macrophages for reactive oxygen production.
TLDR
Dectin-1 signaling reveals dynamic macrophage heterogeneity in inflammatory activation potential and is important for DectIn-1-stimulated reactive oxygen production, but not for phagocytosis.
Cutting Edge: Functional Interactions Between Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR1 or TLR6 in Response to Phenol-Soluble Modulin1
TLDR
It is reported here that TLR2 transduces the response to phenol-soluble modulin, a factor secreted by Staphylococcus epidermidis, and it is demonstrated that a response to phenotype was more refractory to inhibition by TLR1 than one mediated byTLR2 alone.
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