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Deciding Advantageously Before Knowing the Advantageous Strategy
The results suggest that, in normal individuals, nonconscious biases guide behavior before conscious knowledge does, and without the help of such biases, overt knowledge may be insufficient to ensure advantageous behavior.
Characterization of the decision-making deficit of patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions.
Patients with VM lesions are insensitive to future consequences, positive or negative, and are primarily guided by immediate prospects, according to this study's designs of a variant of the original gambling task.
Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgements
It is shown that six patients with focal bilateral damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), a brain region necessary for the normal generation of emotions, produce an abnormally ‘utilitarian’ pattern of judgements on moral dilemmas that pit compelling considerations of aggregate welfare against highly emotionally aversive behaviours.
A mechanism for impaired fear recognition after amygdala damage
It is shown that SM, a patient with rare bilateral amygdala damage, shows an inability to make normal use of information from the eye region of faces when judging emotions, a defect the authors trace to a lack of spontaneous fixations on the eyes during free viewing of faces.
Failure to respond autonomically to anticipated future outcomes following damage to prefrontal cortex.
A physiological correlate for the defect of prefrontal damage is identified and its possible significance is discussed, compatible with the idea that these patients fail to activate biasing signals that would serve as value markers in the distinction between choices with good or bad future outcomes.
Neural Systems Responding to Degrees of Uncertainty in Human Decision-Making
Using functional brain imaging, it is shown that the level of ambiguity in choices correlates positively with activation in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, and negatively with the striatal system, suggesting a general neural circuit responding to degrees of uncertainty, contrary to decision theory.
Dissociation Of Working Memory from Decision Making within the Human Prefrontal Cortex
A cognitive and anatomic double dissociation between deficits in decision making (anterior VM) and working memory (right DL/M) is revealed, the first direct evidence of such effects in humans using the lesion method and underscores the special importance of the VM prefrontal region in decisionMaking, independent of a direct role in working memory.
Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex
Early-onset prefrontal damage resulted in a syndrome resembling psychopathy, suggesting that the acquisition of complex social conventions and moral rules had been impaired.
A neural basis for lexical retrieval
Nature 380, 499-505 (1996) AN ambiguity was introduced during editing into the opening sentence of the heading of this Article. This should read "Two parallel studies, one conducted in neurological