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New advanced technologies are being integrated into vehicles at an accelerating pace, offering new safety and convenience features to drivers. However, in addition to being complex systems in and ofExpand
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Susceptibility of North American Ducks and Gulls to H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses
Since 2002, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPA1) viruses have been associated with deaths in numerous wild avian species throughout Eurasia. We assessed the clinical response and extent andExpand
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Host range of avian influenza virus in free-living birds
Isolation of avian influenza virus (AIV) has been reported from 12 orders and 88 species of free-living birds. Most isolations are reported from species in the orders Anseriformes and CharadriiformesExpand
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Avian influenza virus in water: infectivity is dependent on pH, salinity and temperature.
Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Transmission within these aquatic bird populations occurs through an indirectExpand
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Phylogenetic Diversity among Low-Virulence Newcastle Disease Viruses from Waterfowl and Shorebirds and Comparison of Genotype Distributions to Those of Poultry-Origin Isolates
ABSTRACT Low-virulence Newcastle disease viruses (loNDV) are frequently recovered from wild bird species, but little is known about their distribution, genetic diversity, or potential to causeExpand
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Persistence of H5 and H7 Avian Influenza Viruses in Water
Abstract Although fecal–oral transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) via contaminated water represents a recognized mechanism for transmission within wild waterfowl populations, little is knownExpand
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Effects of pH, temperature, and salinity on persistence of avian influenza viruses in water.
The combined effects of water temperature, salinity, and pH on persistence of avian influenza virus (AIV) were evaluated in a model distilled-water system using three isolates from ducks sampled inExpand
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Avian influenza viruses from migratory and resident ducks of coastal Louisiana.
Cloacal and tracheal swabs were collected from 1389 hunter-killed ducks in Cameron Parish, Louisiana, during the 1986 and 1987 waterfowl seasons. Twenty-eight avian influenza viruses (AIVs) wereExpand
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Experimental Infection of Swans and Geese with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) of Asian Lineage
Susceptibility to infection, duration of illness, and concentration of asymptomatic viral shedding vary between species of swans and geese.
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Mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in wild songbirds: the spread of a new contagious disease in a mobile host population.
A new mycoplasmal conjunctivitis was first reported in wild house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in early 1994. The causative agent was identified as Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), a nonzoonoticExpand
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