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Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents
TLDR
It is proposed that ghrelin, in addition to its role in regulating GH secretion, signals the hypothalamus when an increase in metabolic efficiency is necessary, suggesting an involvement in regulation of energy balance.
Unimolecular Dual Incretins Maximize Metabolic Benefits in Rodents, Monkeys, and Humans
TLDR
This discovery and validation of a balanced and high-potency dual incretin agonist enables a more physiological approach to management of diseases associated with impaired glucose tolerance and represents a new class of drug candidates for the treatment of metabolic diseases.
A new glucagon and GLP-1 co-agonist eliminates obesity in rodents.
TLDR
Preclinical studies indicate that when full GLP-1 agonism is augmented with an appropriate degree of glucagon receptor activation, body fat reduction can be substantially enhanced without any overt adverse effects.
A rationally designed monomeric peptide triagonist corrects obesity and diabetes in rodents
TLDR
It is demonstrated that these individual constituent activities harmonize to govern the overall metabolic efficacy, which predominantly results from synergistic glucagon action to increase energy expenditure, GLP-1 action to reduce caloric intake and improve glucose control, and GIP action to potentiate the incretin effect and buffer against the diabetogenic effect of inherent glucagon activity.
A new quorum‐sensing system (TprA/PhrA) for Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 that regulates a lantibiotic biosynthesis gene cluster
TLDR
The basic mechanism for a Phr‐peptide signaling system in S. pneumoniae is characterized and it is found that it induces the expression of the lantibiotic genes when pneumococcal cells are at high density in the presence of galactose, a main sugar of the human nasopharynx, a highly competitive microbial environment.
Neuropeptide Y-Y2 receptors mediate anxiety in the amygdala
Physiology: Does gut hormone PYY3–36 decrease food intake in rodents?
TLDR
The fact that the findings of Batterham et al. cannot easily be replicated calls into question the potential value of an anti-obesity approach that is based on administration of PYY3–36.
Crystal structure of human parathyroid hormone 1-34 at 0.9-A resolution.
TLDR
The N-terminal fragment 1-34 of parathyroid hormone (PTH), administered intermittently, results in increased bone formation in patients with osteoporosis and a receptor binding pocket for the N terminus of hPTH-(1-34) and a hydrophobic interface with the receptor for the C terminus are proposed.
A novel human-based receptor antagonist of sustained action reveals body weight control by endogenous GLP-1.
TLDR
Daily administration of this antagonist by subcutaneous injection to diet-induced obese mice for 1 week caused a significant increase in food intake, body weight, and glucose intolerance, demonstrating endogenous GLP-1 as a relevant hormone in mammalian energy balance in the obese state.
Characterization of the peptide binding requirements for the cloned human pancreatic polypeptide-preferring receptor.
TLDR
Key residues in the amino-terminal region of PP seem to be the most important part of the peptide for high affinity binding to hPP1, which seems to be distinct from the Y1 and Y2 receptor.
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