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Instrumental variable methods for causal inference.
A goal of many health studies is to determine the causal effect of a treatment or intervention on health outcomes. Often, it is not ethically or practically possible to conduct a perfectly randomized… Expand
Instrumental Variables Estimation With Some Invalid Instruments and its Application to Mendelian Randomization
Instrumental variables have been widely used for estimating the causal effect between exposure and outcome. Conventional estimation methods require complete knowledge about all the instruments’… Expand
A review of instrumental variable estimators for Mendelian randomization
- S. Burgess, D. Small, S. Thompson
- Computer Science, Medicine
- Statistical methods in medical research
- 17 August 2015
Instrumental variable analysis is an approach for obtaining causal inferences on the effect of an exposure (risk factor) on an outcome from observational data. Expand
Building a Stronger Instrument in an Observational Study of Perinatal Care for Premature Infants
An instrument is a random nudge toward acceptance of a treatment that affects outcomes only to the extent that it affects acceptance of the treatment. Nonetheless, in settings in which treatment… Expand
Marginal regression analysis of longitudinal data with time-dependent covariates: a generalized method-of-moments approach
We develop a new approach to using estimating equations to estimate marginal regression models for longitudinal data with time-dependent covariates. Our approach classifies time-dependent covariates… Expand
Statistical inference in two-sample summary-data Mendelian randomization using robust adjusted profile score
Mendelian randomization (MR) is a method of exploiting genetic variation to unbiasedly estimate a causal effect in presence of unmeasured confounding. MR is being widely used in epidemiology and… Expand
Hospitals with higher nurse staffing had lower odds of readmissions penalties than hospitals with lower staffing.
The Affordable Care Act's Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) penalizes hospitals based on excess readmission rates among Medicare beneficiaries. The aim of the program is to reduce… Expand
Nonparametric methods for doubly robust estimation of continuous treatment effects.
- Edward H. Kennedy, Zongming Ma, M. McHugh, D. Small
- Mathematics, Medicine
- Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series…
- 2 July 2015
Continuous treatments (e.g., doses) arise often in practice, but many available causal effect estimators are limited by either requiring parametric models for the effect curve, or by not allowing… Expand
Asthma Numeracy Skill and Health Literacy
- A. Apter, J. Cheng, +5 authors Simone Van Horne
- The Journal of asthma : official journal of the…
- 1 January 2006
To assess understanding of numerical concepts in asthma self-management instructions, a 4-item Asthma Numeracy Questionnaire (ANQ) was developed and read to 73 adults with persistent asthma.… Expand
Bounds on causal effects in three-arm trials with non-compliance
The paper considers the analysis of three-arm randomized trials with non-compliance. In these trials, the average causal effects of treatments within principal strata of compliance behaviour are of… Expand