A hierarchical approach to defining marine heatwaves
An extreme climatic event alters marine ecosystem structure in a global biodiversity hotspot
In 2011 the waters along the west coast of Australia—a global hotspot of biodiversity—experienced an unprecedented (in recorded times) warming event with warming anomalies of 2–4 °C that persisted…
Climate-driven regime shift of a temperate marine ecosystem
It is shown that extreme warming of a temperate kelp forest off Australia resulted not only in its collapse, but also in a shift in community composition that brought about an increase in herbivorous tropical fishes that prevent the reestablishment of kelp.
A decade of climate change experiments on marine organisms: procedures, patterns and problems
Increased effort is required in five areas: the combined effects of concurrent climate and non-climate stressors; responses of a broader range of species, particularly from tropical and polar regions as well as primary producers, pelagic invertebrates, and fish; species interactions and responses of species assemblages; and increasing realism in experiments through broad-scale observations and field experiments.
Longer and more frequent marine heatwaves over the past century
Using a range of ocean temperature data including global records of daily satellite observations, daily in situ measurements and gridded monthly in situ-based data sets, this work identifies significant increases in marine heatwaves over the past century.
The tropicalization of temperate marine ecosystems: climate-mediated changes in herbivory and community phase shifts
- A. Vergés, P. Steinberg, S. Wilson
- Environmental ScienceProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological…
- 22 August 2014
It is argued that this phase shift is facilitated by poleward-flowing boundary currents that are creating ocean warming hotspots around the globe, enabling the range expansion of tropical species and increasing their grazing rates in temperate areas.
Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective
- D. Smale, M. Burrows, P. Moore, Nessa E. O'Connor, S. Hawkins
- Environmental ScienceEcology and Evolution
- 15 September 2013
Information is synthesized from >60 years of research on the structure and functioning of kelp forest habitats in European waters, with particular emphasis on the coasts of UK and Ireland, which represents an important biogeographic transition zone that is subjected to multiple threats and stressors.
Defining and observing stages of climate-mediated range shifts in marine systems
Species traits and climate velocity explain geographic range shifts in an ocean-warming hotspot.
It is found that small-ranging species are in double jeopardy, with limited ability to escape warming and greater intrinsic vulnerability to stochastic disturbances, and independent support for the hypothesis that species with narrow latitudinal ranges are limited by factors other than climate.
Marine heatwaves threaten global biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services
The global ocean has warmed substantially over the past century, with far-reaching implications for marine ecosystems1. Concurrent with long-term persistent warming, discrete periods of extreme…