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Criteria for the Diagnosis of Hermaphroditism in Fishes
The strongest indicators of protandry are transitional individuals whose gonads contain degenerating testicular tissue and developing ovarian tissue, and experimental production of transitional or sex-reversed individuals through manipulation of the social system may identify both protogyny and prot andry.
Sperm Economy in a Coral Reef Fish, Thalassoma Bifasciatum
Overall, sperm production is probably sufficiently costly that males have been selected to allocate sperm carefully among their frequent daily spawns.
Size, composition, and spatial structure of the annual spawning aggregation of the red hind, Epinephelus guttatus (Pisces : Serranidae)
It is suggested that aggregations function primarily to enable males and females to find mates and that spawning is not random but occurs in clusters containing one male and a few females.
Sexual conflict: males with highest mating success convey the lowest fertilization benefits to females
Feeding experiments suggest that high-success males are diverting energy from gamete production to other fitness-enhancing activities such as mate guarding, and this is reflected in significantly lower fertilization rates in natural populations of a coral reef fish.
Differentiation and Evolution of Sex Change in Fishes
Vertebrate sexual reproduction requires a proximity between the sexes that is generally achieved by having a proximity to the external environment, and evolutionary approaches to sex allocation have had to be redefined and generalized to examine the relative proportion of a sexchanging organism's life and energetic investment devoted to each sex.
Plasticity of gonadal development and protandry in fishes.
  • D. Shapiro
  • Biology
    The Journal of experimental zoology
  • 1 February 1992
Sexual differentiation in eutherian mammals follows a simple governing paradigm: development proceeds in a female direction unless a masculinizing mechanism intervenes, and recent evidence suggests a reinterpretation of gonadal differentiation in a protandric anemonefish and a prot andric sparid.
Sperm allocation, sperm production and fertilization rates in the bucktooth parrotfish
Overall, the sperm allocation pattern can be explained both as a form of sperm economy in which males release the minimum number of sperm needed to fertilize most of the eggs in clutches of different size, and as a response to an increased probability of sperm competition with females of increasing size.