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The use and misuse of conditional symmetric instability
Abstract A commonly employed explanation for single- and multiple-banded clouds and precipitation in the extratropics is slantwise convection due to the release of moist symmetric instability (MSI),Expand
Evolution of the U.S. Tornado Database: 1954–2003
Abstract Over the last 50 yr, the number of tornadoes reported in the United States has doubled from about 600 per year in the 1950s to around 1200 in the 2000s. This doubling is likely not relatedExpand
Improving Snowfall Forecasting by Diagnosing Snow Density
Current prediction of snowfall amounts is accomplished either by using empirical techniques or by using a standard modification of liquid equivalent precipitation such as the 10-to-1 rule. This rule,Expand
The Structure and Evolution of Gap Outflow over the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico
Abstract Mesoscale-model simulations are used to examine the structure and dynamics of a gap-outflow event over the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico, that was associated with a surge of cold air along theExpand
Tornado outbreaks associated with landfalling hurricanes in the North Atlantic Basin: 1954–2004
SummaryTornadoes are a notable potential hazard associated with landfalling hurricanes. The purpose of this paper is to discriminate hurricanes that produce numerous tornadoes (tornado outbreaks)Expand
Planetary- and Synoptic-Scale Signatures Associated with Central American Cold Surges
Abstract Motivated by outstanding issues from a previous case study of a midlatitude cold surge that affected Mexico and Central America, the climatology of Central American cold surges is examinedExpand
The Use of Moisture Flux Convergence in Forecasting Convective Initiation: Historical and Operational Perspectives
Abstract Moisture flux convergence (MFC) is a term in the conservation of water vapor equation and was first calculated in the 1950s and 1960s as a vertically integrated quantity to predict rainfallExpand
U.S. Geological Survey Core Drilling on the Atlantic Shelf
The first broad program of scientific shallow drilling on the U.S. Atlantic continental shelf has delineated rocks of Pleistocene to Late Cretaceous age, including phosphoritic Miocene strata,Expand
On the use of indices and parameters in forecasting severe storms
This paper discusses our concept of the proper (and improper) use of diagnostic variables in severe-storm forecasting. A framework for classification of diagnostic variables is developed, indicatingExpand
Large-Scale Antecedent Conditions Associated with the 12 14 March 1993 Cyclone (``Superstorm '93'') over Eastern North America
Abstract The results of a multiscale analysis of the 12–14 March 1993 superstonn (SS93) over eastern North America are presented. A time sequence of overlapping 10-day time-mean 5OO-hPa geopotentialExpand