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Mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents in Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients involve specific multidrug transporters
- D. Sanglard, K. Kuchler, F. Ischer, J. Pagani, M. Monod, J. Billé
- Biology, MedicineAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
- 1 November 1995
It is found that overexpression of the gene encoding 14DM either by gene amplification or by gene deregulation was not the major cause of resistance among these clinical isolates of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, and that resistance could be mediated by energy-requiring efflux pumps such as ATP-binding cassette (ABC) multidrug transporters.
TAC1, Transcriptional Activator of CDR Genes, Is a New Transcription Factor Involved in the Regulation of Candida albicans ABC Transporters CDR1 and CDR2
TAC1 appears to be the first C. albicans transcription factor involved in the control of genes mediating antifungal resistance, and is relevant for azole resistance, since a TAC1 allele recovered from an azole-resistant strain could trigger constitutive upregulation of CDR1 and CDR2 in an azolesceptible laboratory strain.
CRZ1, a target of the calcineurin pathway in Candida albicans
- M. Karababa, Emilio Valentino, Giacomo Pardini, A. Coste, J. Billé, D. Sanglard
- Biology, ChemistryMolecular microbiology
- 1 March 2006
This work establishes CRZ1 as a calcineurin target, and further studies are needed to identify other calcineURin‐dependent elements in C. albicans.
Cloning of Candida albicans genes conferring resistance to azole antifungal agents: characterization of CDR2, a new multidrug ABC transporter gene.
Data demonstrate that CDR2 plays an important role in mediating the resistance of C. albicans to azole antifungal agents.
Protein kinase A encoded by TPK2 regulates dimorphism of Candida albicans
- Anja Sonneborn, D. Bockmühl, M. Gerads, Katharina Kurpanek, D. Sanglard, J. Ernst
- BiologyMolecular microbiology
- 1 January 2000
It is demonstrated that the catalytic subunit of a protein kinase A (PKA) isoform encoded by TPK2 is required for internal signalling leading to hyphal differentiation in Candida albicans.
Susceptibilities of Candida albicans multidrug transporter mutants to various antifungal agents and other metabolic inhibitors
- D. Sanglard, F. Ischer, M. Monod, J. Billé
- BiologyAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
- 1 October 1996
The results indicated that the delta cdr1 C. albicans mutant was hypersusceptible to the azole derivatives fluconazole, itraconazoles, and ketoconazole), thus showing that the ABC transporter Cdr1 can use these compounds as substrates.
Resistance of Candida species to antifungal agents: molecular mechanisms and clinical consequences.
The ATP Binding Cassette Transporter GeneCgCDR1 from Candida glabrata Is Involved in the Resistance of Clinical Isolates to Azole Antifungal Agents
- D. Sanglard, F. Ischer, D. Calabrese, P. Majcherczyk, J. Billé
- BiologyAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
- 1 November 1999
This study demonstrates for the first time the determinant role of an ABC transporter gene in the acquisition of resistance to azole antifungals by C. glabrata clinical isolates.
Calcineurin A of Candida albicans: involvement in antifungal tolerance, cell morphogenesis and virulence
Calcineurin was found to be necessary for the virulence of C. albicans in a mice model of infection, thus making calcineur in an important element for adequate adaptation to the conditions of the host environment.
Role of ATP-Binding-Cassette Transporter Genes in High-Frequency Acquisition of Resistance to Azole Antifungals in Candida glabrata
It is shown that high-frequency azole resistance (HFAR) acquired in vitro was due, at least in part, to the upregulation of CgCDR1, and that the HFAR phenomenon was linked to the loss of mitochondria in C. glabrata.