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CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control Leishmania major persistence and immunity
TLDR
It is shown that the persistence of Leishmania major in the skin after healing in resistant C57BL/6 mice is controlled by an endogenous population of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, indicating that the equilibrium established between effector and regulatory T Cells in sites of chronic infection might reflect both parasite and host survival strategies.
The immunology of susceptibility and resistance to Leishmania major in mice
Established models of T-helper-2-cell dominance in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major — involving the early production of interleukin-4 by a small subset of Leishmania-specific CD4+ T cells —
In Vivo Imaging Reveals an Essential Role for Neutrophils in Leishmaniasis Transmitted by Sand Flies
TLDR
Infection with the obligate intracellular protozoan Leishmania major (L.m.m.) appears to have evolved to both evade and exploit the innate host response to sand fly bite in order to establish and promote disease.
CD4+CD25−Foxp3− Th1 cells are the source of IL-10–mediated immune suppression in chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis
TLDR
It is demonstrated that Th1 cells, activated early in a strong inflammatory setting as a mechanism of feedback control, are the principal mediators of T cell–derived IL-10–dependent immune suppression in a chronic intracellular infection.
The Role of Interleukin (IL)-10 in the Persistence of Leishmania major in the Skin after Healing and the Therapeutic Potential of Anti–IL-10 Receptor Antibody for Sterile Cure
TLDR
A novel therapeutic approach to eliminate latency, infection reservoirs, and the risk of reactivation disease is suggested as sterile cure was achieved in IL-10–deficient and IL-4/IL-10 double-deficient mice.
Phagosomes are competent organelles for antigen cross-presentation
TLDR
It is shown that phagosomes display the elements and properties needed to be self-sufficient for the cross-presentation of exogenous antigens, a newly ascribed function linked to phagocytosis mediated by the endoplasmic reticulum.
Splenic accumulation of IL-10 mRNA in T cells distinct from CD4+CD25+ (Foxp3) regulatory T cells in human visceral leishmaniasis
TLDR
The results did not point to an important role for natural CD4+CD25+ (Foxp3high) T reg cells in human VL, but elevated levels of IL-10 in VL plasma significantly enhanced the growth of L. donovani amastigotes in human macrophages.
Toward a Defined Anti-Leishmania Vaccine Targeting Vector Antigens
TLDR
Results indicate that DTH response against saliva provides most or all of the protective effects of this vaccine and that salivary gland proteins or their cDNAs are viable vaccine targets against leishmaniasis.
A Natural Model of Leishmania major Infection Reveals a Prolonged “Silent” Phase of Parasite Amplification in the Skin Before the Onset of Lesion Formation and Immunity
TLDR
The results extend to a natural infection model a role for Th1 cells in both acquired resistance and lesion formation, and document the remarkable avoidance of this response during a prolonged phase of parasite amplification in the skin.
Development of a Natural Model of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Powerful Effects of  Vector Saliva and Saliva Preexposure on the Long-Term Outcome of Leishmania major Infection in the Mouse Ear Dermis
TLDR
The studies reveal a dramatic exacerbating effect of SGS on lesion development in the dermal site, and a complete abrogation of this effect in mice preexposed to salivary components, the first to suggest that for individuals at risk of vector-borne infections, history of exposure to vector saliva might influence the outcome of Exposure to transmitted parasites.
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