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Calibrating the End-Permian Mass Extinction
High-precision geochronologic dating constrains probable causes of Earth's largest mass extinction and reveals that the extinction peak occurred just before 252.28 ± 0.08 million years ago, after a decline of 2 per mil (‰) in δ13C over 90,000 years, and coincided with a δ 13C excursion that is estimated to have lasted ≤20,000 Years.
Re-examination of the "3/4-law" of metabolism.
Re-analyse data sets for mammals and birds compiled by Heusner, Bennett and Harvey, Bartels, Hemmingsen, Brody, and Kleiber, and find little evidence for rejecting alpha = 2/3 in favor of alpha = 3/4.
Dynamics of the Neoproterozoic carbon cycle
- D. Rothman, J. Hayes, R. Summons
- Geology, Environmental ScienceProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 24 June 2003
It is suggested that the most significant of the Neoproterozoic negative carbon-isotopic excursions resulted from increased remineralization of this reservoir, a process that was likely initiated by evolutionary innovations that increased export of organic matter to the deep sea.
Scaling, Universality, and Geomorphology
This review describes recent progress made in applying the concepts of scaling and universality to networks and topography and attempts a classification of surface and network properties based on generic mechanisms and geometric constraints.
Immiscible cellular-automaton fluids
We introduce a new deterministic collision rule for lattice-gas (cellular-automaton) hydrodynamics that yields immiscible two-phase flow. The rule is based on a minimization principle and the…
Statistics of Mars' topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter: Slopes, correlations, and physical Models
Data obtained recently by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) were used to study the statistical properties of the topography and slopes on Mars. We find that the hemispheric dichotomy,…
Diffusion properties of gradient-based lattice Boltzmann models of immiscible fluids.
An analytic expression of a fully developed interfacial curve is derived and it is shown that interfaces evolve towards this stable distribution if no fluid is trapped, and how small numerical errors lead to spontaneous phase separation.
Biophysical basis for the geometry of conical stromatolites
- A. Petroff, M. Sim, A. Maslov, M. Krupenin, D. Rothman, T. Bosak
- Environmental Science, GeologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 17 May 2010
It is found that organization of a field of stromatolites is set by a diffusive time scale over which individual structures compete for nutrients, thus linking form to physiology, and provides quantitative support for the photosynthetic origin of conical strom atolites throughout geologic time.
Transport in sandstone: A study based on three dimensional microtomography
High resolution imaging of the microstructure of Fontainebleau sandstone allows a direct comparison between theoretical calculations and laboratory measurements. While porosity,…
An abiotic model for stromatolite morphogenesis
This work deduces, from both the microscopic textures and the fractal dimension, a purely abiotic dynamical model of stromatolite surface growth that combines chemical precipitation on the growing interface, fallout and diffusive rearrangement of suspended sediment, and uncorrelated random noise.