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Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes
The genome of a new SIVcpz strain is sequenced and the subspecies identity of all known SIV cpz-infected chimpanzees is determined, by mitochondrial DNA analysis, and it is found that two chimpanzee subspecies in Africa harbour SIVCPz and that their respective viruses form two highly divergent (but subspecies-specific) phylogenetic lineages. Expand
HIV-1 Nomenclature Proposal
A clear and consistent genetic classification of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) strains continues to be of great utility in epidemiological tracking of the AIDS pandemic and in vaccineExpand
Genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 2: evidence for distinct sequence subtypes with differences in virus biology
The results indicate that the genetic and biological diversity of HIV-2 is far greater than previously appreciated and suggest that there may be subtype-specific differences in virus biology. Expand
Genome-Wide Classification and Evolutionary Analysis of the bHLH Family of Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis, Poplar, Rice, Moss, and Algae1[W]
An updated and comprehensive classification of the bHLHs encoded by the whole sequenced genomes of Arabidopsis, Populus trichocarpa, Oryza sativa, Physcomitrella patens, and five algae species is presented and a role for b HLH proteins in generating plant phenotypic diversity is suggested. Expand
The heterosexual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 epidemic in Thailand is caused by an intersubtype (A/E) recombinant of African origin
Detailed phylogenetic analyses of full-length proviral sequences indicated that "subtype E" viruses do indeed represent A/E recombinants with multiple points of crossover along their genomes, and indicated that the recombination event occurred in Africa prior to the spread of virus to Asia. Expand
Evolutionary origins of the SARS-CoV-2 sarbecovirus lineage responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic
Estimates are obtained from three approaches that the most likely divergence date of SARS-CoV-2 from its most closely related available bat sequences ranges from 1948 to 1982, indicating that there are high levels of co-infection in horseshoe bats and that the viral pool can generate novel allele combinations and substantial genetic diversity. Expand
Near full-length clones and reference sequences for subtype C isolates of HIV type 1 from three different continents.
All subtype C genomes contained a prematurely truncated second exon of rev, but other previously proposed sub type C signatures, including three potential NF-kappa B-binding sites in the viral promoter-enhancer regions, were found in only a subset of these genomes. Expand
SARS-CoV-2 variants, spike mutations and immune escape
The literature on mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, the primary antigen, is summarized, focusing on their impacts on antigenicity and contextualizing them in the protein structure, and discussed in the context of observed mutation frequencies in global sequence datasets. Expand
Wild Mandrillus sphinx Are Carriers of Two Types of Lentivirus
E Epidemiological surveys of human immunodeficiency virus revealed a case in Cameroon of a human infected by a virus serologically related to SIVmnd, raising the possibility that mandrills represent a viral reservoir for humans similar to sooty mangabeys in Western Africa and chimpanzees in Central Africa. Expand