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Trends in Antarctic annual sea ice retreat and advance and their relation to El Niño–Southern Oscillation and Southern Annular Mode variability
[1] Previous studies have shown strong contrasting trends in annual sea ice duration and in monthly sea ice concentration in two regions of the Southern Ocean: decreases in the western Antarctic
Efficacy of climate forcings
[1] We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the “efficacy” of different forcings, where
A simple lightning parameterization for calculating global lightning distributions
A simple parameterization has been developed to simulate global lightning distributions. Convective cloud top height is used as the variable in the parameterization, with different formulations for
Does the ocean–atmosphere system have more than one stable mode of operation?
The climate record obtained from two long Greenland ice cores reveals several brief climate oscillations during glacial time. The most recent of these oscillations, also found in continental pollen
Regions of rapid sea ice change: An inter‐hemispheric seasonal comparison
This bi‐polar analysis resolves ice edge changes on space/time scales relevant for investigating seasonal ice‐ocean feedbacks and focuses on spatio‐temporal changes in the timing of annual sea ice
Present-Day Atmospheric Simulations Using GISS ModelE: Comparison to In Situ, Satellite, and Reanalysis Data
Abstract A full description of the ModelE version of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) and results are presented for present-day climate
A coupled atmosphere‐ocean model for transient climate change studies
Abstract A new coupled atmosphere‐ocean model has been developed for climate predictions at decade to century scales. The atmospheric model is similar to that of Hansen et al. (1983) except that the
Climate Forcing by Changing Solar Radiation
Abstract By how much does changing radiation from the sun influence the earth’s climate, presently and in the recent past, compared with other natural and anthropogenic processes? Current knowledge
A New Look at Stratospheric Sudden Warmings. Part II: Evaluation of Numerical Model Simulations
The simulation of major midwinter stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) in six stratosphere-resolving general circulation models (GCMs) is examined. The GCMs are compared to a new climatology of SSWs,
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