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Central nervous system control of food intake
TLDR
A model is described that delineates the roles of individual hormonal and neuropeptide signalling pathways in the control of food intake and the means by which obesity can arise from inherited or acquired defects in their function. Expand
Signals that regulate food intake and energy homeostasis.
TLDR
This review focuses on the molecular signals that modulate food intake while integrating the body's immediate and long-term energy needs. Expand
Cerebrospinal fluid leptin levels: Relationship to plasma levels and to adiposity in humans
TLDR
It is hypothesized that a saturable mechanism mediates CSF leptin transport, and that reduced efficiency of brain leptin delivery among obese individuals with high plasma leptin levels results in apparent leptin resistance. Expand
Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in people with diabetes mellitus: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association.
TLDR
This statement will attempt to harmonize the recommendations of both organizations where possible but will recognize areas in which AHA and ADA recommendations differ. Expand
Thiazolidinedione Use, Fluid Retention, and Congestive Heart Failure: A Consensus Statement From the American Heart Association and American Diabetes Association
TLDR
Because people with diabetes are at increased risk for CVD and many have preexisting heart disease, the edema that sometimes accompanies the use of a TZD can be cause for concern, as it may be a harbinger or sign of congestive heart failure (CHF). Expand
Specificity of Leptin Action on Elevated Blood Glucose Levels and Hypothalamic Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in ob/ob Mice
TLDR
In ob/ob mice, systemic administration of leptin inhibits NPY gene overexpression through a specific action in the arcuate nucleus and exerts a hypoglycemic action that is partly independent of its weight-reducing effects. Expand
Insulin in the brain: a hormonal regulator of energy balance.
TLDR
Recent investigations indicate that “brain insulin” is derived largely from the circulation, and a growing body of evidence suggests that its delivery into the neuropil may be facilitated by a specialized BBB barrier. Expand
Diabetes, Obesity, and the Brain
TLDR
This work has shown that adaptive changes occur that promote energy homeostasis and the maintenance of blood glucose levels in the normal range and are implicated in the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. Expand
Insulin and leptin: dual adiposity signals to the brain for the regulation of food intake and body weight
TLDR
Research showing that leptin and insulin enhance the satiety action of peripheral CCK, thereby causing meals to be terminated earlier and reducing cumulative food intake, suggests that hypothalamic pathways that are sensitive toptin and insulin adiposity signals have anatomical connections with caudal brainstem neurons that respond to meal-related signals and regulate meal size. Expand
Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of insulin reduces food intake and body weight of baboons
TLDR
Additional evidence is presented by showing that in baboons the infusion of exogenous insulin into the CSF elicits a reliable and predictable decrease in food intake and body weight. Expand
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