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Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century
[1] We present the Met Office Hadley Centre's sea ice and sea surface temperature (SST) data set, HadISST1, and the nighttime marine air temperature (NMAT) data set, HadMAT1. HadISST1 replaces theExpand
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Surface air temperature and its changes over the past 150 years
We review the surface air temperature record of the past 150 years, considering the homogeneity of the basic data and the standard errors of estimation of the average hemispheric and globalExpand
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Improved Analyses of Changes and Uncertainties in Sea Surface Temperature Measured In Situ since the Mid-Nineteenth Century: The HadSST2 Dataset
Abstract A new flexible gridded dataset of sea surface temperature (SST) since 1850 is presented and its uncertainties are quantified. This analysis [the Second Hadley Centre Sea Surface TemperatureExpand
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A new daily central England temperature series, 1772–1991
In 1974 Manley produced a time series of monthly average temperatures representative of central England for 1659–1973. The present paper describes how a series of homogenized daily valuesExpand
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Reassessing biases and other uncertainties in sea surface temperature observations measured in situ since 1850: 2. Biases and homogenization
[1] Changes in instrumentation and data availability have caused time-varying biases in estimates of global and regional average sea surface temperature. The size of the biases arising from theseExpand
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A NEW DAILY CENTRAL ENGLAND TEMPERATURE SERIES
In 1974 Manley produced a time series of monthly average temperatures representative of central England for 1659-1973. The present paper describes how a series of homogenized daily valuesExpand
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Reassessing biases and other uncertainties in sea surface temperature observations measured in situ since 1850: 1. Measurement and sampling uncertainties
[1] New estimates of measurement and sampling uncertainties of gridded in situ sea surface temperature anomalies are calculated for 1850 to 2006. The measurement uncertainties account forExpand
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Global temperature change and its uncertainties since 1861
We present the first analysis of global and hemispheric surface warming trends that attempts to quantify the major sources of uncertainty. We calculate global and hemispheric annual temperatureExpand
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Statistical significance of trends and trend differences in layer-average atmospheric temperature time series
This paper examines trend uncertainties in layer-average free atmosphere temperatures arising from the use of different trend estimation methods. It also considers statistical issues that arise inExpand
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Adjusting for sampling density in grid box land and ocean surface temperature time series
We develop methods for adjusting grid box average temperature time series for the effects on variance of changing numbers of contributing data. Owing to the different sampling characteristics of theExpand
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