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The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes
The male-specific region of the Y chromosome, the MSY, differentiates the sexes and comprises 95% of the chromosome's length. Here, we report that the MSY is a mosaic of heterochromatic sequences andExpand
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Retinoic acid regulates sex-specific timing of meiotic initiation in mice.
In mammals, meiosis is initiated at different time points in males and females, but the mechanism underlying this difference is unknown. Female germ cells begin meiosis during embryogenesis. InExpand
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An abundance of X-linked genes expressed in spermatogonia
Spermatogonia are the self-renewing, mitotic germ cells of the testis from which sperm arise by means of the differentiation pathway known as spermatogenesis. By contrast with hematopoietic and otherExpand
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Polymorphism for a 1.6-Mb deletion of the human Y chromosome persists through balance between recurrent mutation and haploid selection
Many human Y-chromosomal deletions are thought to severely impair reproductive fitness, which precludes their transmission to the next generation and thus ensures their rarity in the population. HereExpand
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Four evolutionary strata on the human X chromosome.
Human sex chromosomes evolved from autosomes. Nineteen ancestral autosomal genes persist as differentiated homologs on the X and Y chromosomes. The ages of individual X-Y gene pairs (measured byExpand
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Follistatin operates downstream of Wnt4 in mammalian ovary organogenesis
Wnt4‐/‐ XX gonads display features normally associated with testis differentiation, suggesting that WNT4 actively represses elements of the male pathway during ovarian development. Here, we show thatExpand
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Diverse spermatogenic defects in humans caused by Y chromosome deletions encompassing a novel RNA-binding protein gene
We have detected deletions of portions of the Y chromosome long arm in 12 of 89 men with azoospermia (no spermatozoa in their semen). No Y deletions were detected in their male relatives or in 90Expand
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Abundant gene conversion between arms of palindromes in human and ape Y chromosomes
Eight palindromes comprise one-quarter of the euchromatic DNA of the male-specific region of the human Y chromosome, the MSY. They contain many testis-specific genes and typically exhibit 99.97%Expand
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In germ cells of mouse embryonic ovaries, the decision to enter meiosis precedes premeiotic DNA replication
The transition from mitosis to meiosis is a defining juncture in the life cycle of sexually reproducing organisms. In yeast, the decision to enter meiosis is made before the single round of DNAExpand
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Recombination between palindromes P5 and P1 on the human Y chromosome causes massive deletions and spermatogenic failure.
It is widely believed that at least three nonoverlapping regions of the human Y chromosome-AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc ("azoospermia factors" a, b, and c)-are essential for normal spermatogenesis. TheseExpand
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