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Pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation improves akinesia in a Parkinsonian monkey
TLDR
The results suggest that pedunculopontine nuclei stimulation could be clinically effective in treating advanced Parkinson's disease and other akinetic disorders.
The sensory and motor representation of synchronized oscillations in the globus pallidus in patients with primary dystonia.
TLDR
In 15 patients with primary dystonia who were treated with bilateral chronic pallidal stimulation, the sensorimotor modulation of the oscillatory local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from the pallidal electrodes were investigated and correlated with the surface electromyograms in the affected muscles.
Reversal of akinesia in experimental parkinsonism by GABA antagonist microinjections in the pedunculopontine nucleus.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that microinjection of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor A antagonist substance, bicuculline, into the PPN of non-human primates rendered parkinsonian with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine results in significant improvement of akinesia.
Globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation for dystonic conditions: A prospective audit
TLDR
This study clearly demonstrates that DBS of the GPi provides amelioration of intractable dystonia.
Deep brain stimulation for generalised dystonia and spasmodic torticollis
Deep brain stimulation of the pedunculopontine region in the normal non-human primate
TLDR
St stereotactically implanted a macroelectrode in the left PPN region in a normal macaque to investigate the effects of deep brain stimulation at different frequencies and concludes that stimulating the PPN area at high frequency causes akinesia, whereas low frequencies induce some positive motor effects.
Deep brain stimulation: indications and evidence
TLDR
While deep brain stimulation is a standard and widely accepted treatment for Parkinson’s disease after 20 years of experience, in chronic pain it remains restricted to a handful of experienced, specialist centers willing to publish outcomes despite its use for over 50 years.
Hardware‐Related problems of deep brain stimulation
TLDR
Overall there is a 20% rate of hardware‐related problems in this series, which falls between the 7% and 65% rates reported by other groups, and the majority of these failures occurred early on in the series, and numbers declined with experience.
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