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Pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation improves akinesia in a Parkinsonian monkey
We have studied the effects of stimulating the pedunculopontine nuclei through a fully implanted macroelectrode with a s.c. implantable pulse generator whose parameters can be programmedExpand
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Globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation for dystonic conditions: A prospective audit
In the current era of functional surgery for movement disorders, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is emerging as the favoured target in the treatment of patientsExpand
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Reversal of akinesia in experimental parkinsonism by GABA antagonist microinjections in the pedunculopontine nucleus.
Recent studies, mainly in animals, have shown that the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) in the upper brainstem has extensive connections with several motor centres in the CNS. This structure has alsoExpand
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Deep brain stimulation: indications and evidence
Deep brain stimulation is a minimally invasive targeted neurosurgical intervention that enables structures deep in the brain to be stimulated electrically by an implanted pacemaker. It has become theExpand
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Electrophysiological confirmation of the zona incerta as a target for surgical treatment of disabling involuntary arm movements in multiple sclerosis: use of local field potentials
Lesioning or chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus ventralis intermedius results in abolition of tremor in the contralateral limbs in Parkinson's disease (PD) and also in essentialExpand
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Deep brain stimulation of the pedunculopontine region in the normal non-human primate
Lesions in the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) cause akinesia. The PPN degenerates in Parkinson's disease. Stimulation of the PPN region induces stepping movements in rats and cats. These findingsExpand
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Thalamotomy versus thalamic stimulation for multiple sclerosis tremor
Disabling intractable tremor occurs frequently in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). There is currently no effective medical treatment available, and the results of surgical intervention haveExpand
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Application of vibrational microspectroscopy to biology and medicine
Vibrational microspectroscopic (Raman and infrared (IR)) techniques are rapidly emerging as effective tools to probe the basic processes of life. This review mainly focuses on the applications ofExpand
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Pedunculopontine stimulation from primate to patient
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a novel neurosurgical therapy developed to address symptoms of gait freezing and postural instability in Parkinson’s disease andExpand
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Post‐operative progress of dystonia patients following globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation
In the current era of functional surgery for movement disorders, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is emerging as the favoured intervention for patients withExpand
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