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Exploring the full spectrum of macrophage activation
Macrophages display remarkable plasticity and can change their physiology in response to environmental cues. These changes can give rise to different populations of cells with distinct functions. InExpand
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Exploring the full spectrum of macrophage activation
Nature Reviews Immunology 8, 958–969 (2008) The authors would like to include as an addendum the contribution of R. Stout and J. Suttles to the conceptual framework of macrophage plasticity that wasExpand
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Macrophage activation and polarization: nomenclature and experimental guidelines.
Description of macrophage activation is currently contentious and confusing. Like the biblical Tower of Babel, macrophage activation encompasses a panoply of descriptors used in different ways. TheExpand
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The many faces of macrophage activation
  • D. Mosser
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of leukocyte biology
  • 1 February 2003
It used to be easy. In the old days ( 8 years ago), activated macrophages were simply defined as cells that secreted inflammatory mediators and killed intracellular pathogens. Things are becomingExpand
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Biochemical and functional characterization of three activated macrophage populations
We generated three populations of macrophages (Mφ) in vitro and characterized each. Classically activated Mφ (Ca‐Mφ) were primed with IFN‐γ and stimulated with LPS. Type II‐activated Mφ (Mφ‐II) wereExpand
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Interleukin‐10: new perspectives on an old cytokine
Summary: Interleukin‐10 (IL‐10) has long been recognized to have potent and broad‐spectrum anti‐inflammatory activity, which has been unequivocally established in various models of infection,Expand
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The Role of IL-10 in Promoting Disease Progression in Leishmaniasis1
To determine the role of IL-10 in cutaneous leishmaniasis, we examined lesion development following Leishmania major infection of genetically susceptible BALB/c mice lacking IL-10. Whereas normalExpand
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The Isolation and Characterization of Murine Macrophages
Macrophages are mononuclear phagocytes that are widely distributed throughout the body. These cells can contribute to development and homeostasis and participate in innate and adaptive immuneExpand
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Macrophage activation by endogenous danger signals
Macrophages are cells that function as a first line of defence against invading microorganisms. One of the hallmarks of macrophages is their ability to become activated in response to exogenousExpand
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NF-κB1 (p50) Homodimers Differentially Regulate Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines in Macrophages*
NF-κB/Rel is a family of transcription factors whose activation has long been linked to the production of inflammatory cytokines. Here, we studied NF-κB signaling in the regulation of theExpand
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