Valproic acid. A reappraisal of its pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy in epilepsy.
Comparative trials and extensive clinical experience have demonstrated the efficacy and tolerability of valproic acid and support its role as a valuable and well established first-line treatment for patients with a broad range of seizure types.
Tramadol. A preliminary review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in acute and chronic pain states.
Evidence to date of the analgesic effectiveness of tramadol combined with a low respiratory depressant effect and low dependence potential in short term use, suggests that the drug may become a useful alternative to the opioid analgesics currently available for the treatment of patients with moderately severe acute or chronic pain.
Verapamil. An updated review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic use in hypertension.
Evidence from clinical studies supports the role of oral verapamil as an effective and well-tolerated first-line treatment for the management of patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension and it may be used in preference to beta-blockers in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive airway disease.
Azithromycin. A review of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and clinical efficacy.
The clinical efficacy of azithromycin has been confirmed in the treatment of infections of the lower and upper respiratory tracts, skin and soft tissues, in uncomplicated urethritis/cervicitis associated with C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoea or U. urealyticum and in thetreatment of early Lyme disease.
Fenofibrate. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use in dyslipidaemia.
Fenofibrates offers an effective and well tolerated alternative to clofibrate or other fibric acid derivatives, but its relative efficacy and tolerability compared with other types of lipid-lowering drugs, and its effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, remain to be clarified.
Tamsulosin : A Review of its Pharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Potential in the Management of Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.
The pharmacodynamic properties of tamsulosin appear to translate into tolerability and administration advantages over other α1 adrenoceptor antagonists, and will be ideally placed as a valuable therapeutic option for patients with symptomatic BPH and in patients awaiting surgery or in those unable to undergo surgery.
Acarbose : An Update of its Pharmacology and Therapeutic Use in Diabetes Mellitus.
Clinical trials have demonstrated that acarbose generally improves glycaemic control in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) managed with diet alone, or with other antidiabetic therapy, as evidenced by decreased postprandial plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels.
Sertraline. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Sertraline appears to possess antidepressant efficacy similar to that of amitriptyline and dothiepin, marginally better than imipramine, and significantly better than placebo, and preliminary findings suggest that the drug may also be effective in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Midodrine. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use in orthostatic hypotension and secondary hypotensive disorders.
Oral midodrine is at least as useful as other currently available options in the management of orthostatic or secondary hypotension, and represents a stepping stone towards optimal therapy.
Fludarabine. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential in malignancy.
Preliminary evidence indicates fludarabine in combination with cytarabine has therapeutic activity as salvage therapy in patients with acute leukaemia and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia and mycosis fungoides.